Friday, February 26th, 2016

Kevin P. Myers – Wald, Hallie S. and Myers, Kevin P. “Enhanced Flavor-Nutrient Conditioning in Obese Rats on a High-Fat, High-Carbohydrate Choice Diet.” Physiology & Behavior 151, (2015) : 102-110.

Kevin P. Myers, Associate Professor of Psychology

Through flavor-nutrient conditioning rats learn to prefer and increase their intake of flavors paired with rewarding, postingestive nutritional consequences. Since obesity is linked to altered experience of food reward and to perturbations of nutrient sensing, we investigated flavor-nutrient learning in rats made obese using a high fat/high carbohydrate (HFHC) choice model of diet-induced obesity (ad libitum lard and maltodextrin solution plus standard rodent chow). Forty rats were maintained on HFHC to induce substantial weight gain, and 20 were maintained on chow only (CON). Among HFHC rats, individual differences in propensity to weight gain were studied by comparing those with the highest proportional weight gain (obesity prone, OP) to those with the lowest (obesity resistant, OR). Sensitivity to postingestive food reward was tested in a flavor-nutrient conditioning protocol. To measure initial, within-meal stimulation of flavor acceptance by post-oral nutrient sensing, first, in sessions 1-3, baseline licking was measured while rats consumed grape- or cherry-flavored saccharin accompanied by intragastric (IG) water infusion. Then, in the next three test sessions they received the opposite flavor paired with 5ml of IG 12% glucose. Finally, after additional sessions alternating between the two flavor-infusion contingencies, preference was measured in a two-bottle choice between the flavors without IG infusions. HFHC-OP rats showed stronger initial enhancement of intake in the first glucose infusion sessions than CON or HFHC-OR rats. OP rats also most strongly preferred the glucose-paired flavor in the two-bottle choice. These differences between OP versus OR and CON rats suggest that obesity is linked to responsiveness to postoral nutrient reward, consistent with the view that flavor-nutrient learning perpetuates overeating in obesity.Copyright 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Wald, Hallie S. and Myers, Kevin P. “Enhanced Flavor-Nutrient Conditioning in Obese Rats on a High-Fat, High-Carbohydrate Choice Diet.” Physiology & Behavior 151, (2015) : 102-110.

Continue reading Kevin P. Myers – Wald, Hallie S. and Myers, Kevin P. “Enhanced Flavor-Nutrient Conditioning in Obese Rats on a High-Fat, High-Carbohydrate Choice Diet.” Physiology & Behavior 151, (2015) : 102-110. »

Friday, February 26th, 2016

Aaron D. Mitchel – Evans, David W.; Lazar, Steven M.; Boomer, K B.; Mitchel, Aaron; Michael, Andrew M.; and Moore, Gregory J. “Social Cognition and Brain Morphology: Implications for Developmental Brain Dysfunction.” Brain Imaging and Behavior 9, no. 2 (2015) : 264-274.

Aaron D. Mitchel, Assistant Professor of Psychology

The social-cognitive deficits associated with several neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders have been linked to structural and functional brain anomalies. Given the recent appreciation for quantitative approaches to behavior, in this study we examined the brain-behavior links in social cognition in healthy young adults from a quantitative approach. Twenty-two participants were administered quantitative measures of social cognition, including the social responsiveness scale (SRS), the empathizing questionnaire (EQ) and the systemizing questionnaire (SQ). Participants underwent a structural, 3-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) procedure that yielded both volumetric (voxel count) and asymmetry indices. Model fitting with backward elimination revealed that a combination of cortical, limbic and striatal regions accounted for significant variance in social behavior and cognitive styles that are typically associated with neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. Specifically, as caudate and amygdala volumes deviate from the typical R > L asymmetry, and cortical gray matter becomes more R > L asymmetrical, overall SRS and Emotion Recognition scores increase. Social Avoidance was explained by a combination of cortical gray matter, pallidum (rightward asymmetry) and caudate (deviation from rightward asymmetry). Rightward asymmetry of the pallidum was the sole predictor of Interpersonal Relationships and Repetitive Mannerisms. Increased D-scores on the EQ-SQ, an indication of greater systemizing relative to empathizing, was also explained by deviation from the typical R > L asymmetry of the caudate.

Evans, David W.; Lazar, Steven M.; Boomer, K B.; Mitchel, Aaron; Michael, Andrew M.; and Moore, Gregory J. “Social Cognition and Brain Morphology: Implications for Developmental Brain Dysfunction.” Brain Imaging and Behavior 9, no. 2 (2015) : 264-274.

Continue reading Aaron D. Mitchel – Evans, David W.; Lazar, Steven M.; Boomer, K B.; Mitchel, Aaron; Michael, Andrew M.; and Moore, Gregory J. “Social Cognition and Brain Morphology: Implications for Developmental Brain Dysfunction.” Brain Imaging and Behavior 9, no. 2 (2015) : 264-274. »

Friday, February 26th, 2016

Aaron D. Mitchel – Lusk, Laina G. and Mitchel, Aaron D. “Differential Gaze Patterns on Eyes and Mouth During Audiovisual Speech Segmentation.” Frontiers in Psychology 7, (2016) : 52-52.

Aaron D. Mitchel, Assistant Professor of Psychology

Speech is inextricably multisensory: both auditory and visual components provide critical information for all aspects of speech processing, including speech segmentation, the visual components of which have been the target of a growing number of studies. In particular, a recent study (Mitchel and Weiss, 2014) established that adults can utilize facial cues (i.e., visual prosody) to identify word boundaries in fluent speech. The current study expanded upon these results, using an eye tracker to identify highly attended facial features of the audiovisual display used in Mitchel and Weiss (2014). Subjects spent the most time watching the eyes and mouth. A significant trend in gaze durations was found with the longest gaze duration on the mouth, followed by the eyes and then the nose. In addition, eye gaze patterns changed across familiarization as subjects learned the word boundaries, showing decreased attention to the mouth in later blocks while attention on other facial features remained consistent. These findings highlight the importance of the visual component of speech processing and suggest that the mouth may play a critical role in visual speech segmentation.

Lusk, Laina G. and Mitchel, Aaron D. “Differential Gaze Patterns on Eyes and Mouth During Audiovisual Speech Segmentation.” Frontiers in Psychology 7, (2016) : 52-52.

Continue reading Aaron D. Mitchel – Lusk, Laina G. and Mitchel, Aaron D. “Differential Gaze Patterns on Eyes and Mouth During Audiovisual Speech Segmentation.” Frontiers in Psychology 7, (2016) : 52-52. »

Friday, February 26th, 2016

Jean Lamont – Lamont, Jean. “Trait Body Shame Predicts Health Outcomes in College Women: A Longitudinal Investigation.” Journal of Behavioral Medicine 38, no. 6 (2015) : 998-1008.

Jean Lamont, Visiting Assistant Professor of Psychology

Trait body shame impacts psychological health, but its influence on physical health heretofore has not been examined. While body shame may be expected to impact physical health through many mechanisms, this investigation tested whether trait body shame predicts physical health outcomes by promoting negative attitudes toward bodily processes, thereby diminishing health evaluation and ultimately impacting physical health. Correlational (Study 1, N=177) and longitudinal (Study 2, N=141) studies tested hypotheses that trait body shame would predict infections, self-rated health, and symptoms, and that body responsiveness and health evaluation would mediate these relationships. In Study 1, trait body shame predicted all three poor health outcomes, and body responsiveness and health evaluation mediated these relationships. Study 2 partially replicated these results while controlling for depression, smoking, and BMI, and longitudinal analyses supported the temporal precedence of trait body shame in the proposed model. Limitations and alternative pathways are discussed.

Lamont, Jean. “Trait Body Shame Predicts Health Outcomes in College Women: A Longitudinal Investigation.” Journal of Behavioral Medicine 38, no. 6 (2015) : 998-1008.

Continue reading Jean Lamont – Lamont, Jean. “Trait Body Shame Predicts Health Outcomes in College Women: A Longitudinal Investigation.” Journal of Behavioral Medicine 38, no. 6 (2015) : 998-1008. »

Friday, February 26th, 2016

Peter G. Judge – Pearson, Brandon L.; Reeder, DeeAnn; and Judge, Peter G. “Crowding Increases Salivary Cortisol But Not Self-Directed Behavior in Captive Baboons.” International Journal of Primatology (2015).

Peter G. Judge, Professor of Psychology & Animal Behavior

Reduced space can lead to crowding in social animals. Crowding increases the risk of agonistic interactions that, in turn, may require additional physiological defensive coping mechanisms affecting health. To determine the stress induced from increased social density in a group of nineteen baboons living in an indoor/outdoor enclosure, saliva cortisol levels and rates of anxiety-related behavior were analyzed across two unique crowding episodes. Initially, mean salivary cortisol levels when animals were restricted to their indoor quarters were compared to those when they also had access to their larger outdoor enclosure. Then, mean cortisol levels were compared before, during, and after two distinct crowding periods of long and short duration. Crowding resulted in significantly elevated cortisol during crowding periods compared to non-crowded periods. Cortisol levels returned to baseline following two crowding episodes contrasting in their length and ambient climate conditions. These cortisol elevations indicate greater metabolic costs of maintaining homeostasis under social stress resulting from reduced space. Self-directed behavior, conversely, was not reliably elevated during crowding. Results suggest that the potential for negative social interactions, and/or the uncertainty associated with social threat can cause physiological stress responses detected by salivary cortisol. Self-directed behavioral measures of stress may constitute inadequate indicators of social stress in colony-housed monkeys or represent subjective emotional arousal unrelated to hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis activation.

Pearson, Brandon L.; Reeder, DeeAnn; and Judge, Peter G. “Crowding Increases Salivary Cortisol But Not Self-Directed Behavior in Captive Baboons.” International Journal of Primatology (2015).

Continue reading Peter G. Judge – Pearson, Brandon L.; Reeder, DeeAnn; and Judge, Peter G. “Crowding Increases Salivary Cortisol But Not Self-Directed Behavior in Captive Baboons.” International Journal of Primatology (2015). »

Friday, February 26th, 2016

Peter G. Judge – Zander, Stacey L. and Judge, Peter G. “Brown Capuchin Monkeys (Sapajus apella) Plan Their Movements on a Grasping Task.” Journal of Comparative Psychology 129, no. 2 (2015) : 181-188.

Peter G. Judge, Professor of Psychology & Animal Behavior

Motor planning is a relatively complex cognitive skill in which an actor modifies a behavior to anticipate the future consequences of the action. Studying motor planning in nonhuman primates may provide a better understanding of the roots of human planning abilities. In this study we presented capuchin monkeys (Sapajus apella) with a horizontal dowel baited on either the left or right end. A radial grasp on the dowel with the thumb facing toward the baited end would be the most efficient grip selection when bringing the dowel to one’s mouth and indicate motor planning. Ten of the 12 monkeys tested spontaneously used a radial grasp significantly more often than expected by chance. Results demonstrate a more ubiquitous expression of motor planning abilities than previously seen in capuchin monkeys. Adaptation of this method of testing may be useful in evaluating motor planning capacity in other primates.

Zander, Stacey L. and Judge, Peter G. “Brown Capuchin Monkeys (Sapajus apella) Plan Their Movements on a Grasping Task.” Journal of Comparative Psychology 129, no. 2 (2015) : 181-188.

Continue reading Peter G. Judge – Zander, Stacey L. and Judge, Peter G. “Brown Capuchin Monkeys (Sapajus apella) Plan Their Movements on a Grasping Task.” Journal of Comparative Psychology 129, no. 2 (2015) : 181-188. »

Friday, February 26th, 2016

Peter G. Judge – Marsh, Heidi L.; Vining, Alexander Q.; Levendoski, Emma K.; and Judge, Peter G. “Inference by Exclusion in Lion-Tailed Macaques (Macaca silenus), a Hamadryas Baboon (Papio hamadryas), Capuchins (Sapajus apella), and Squirrel Monkeys (Saimiri sciureus).” Journal of Comparative Psychology 129, no. 3 (2015) : 256-267.

Peter G. Judge, Professor of Psychology & Animal Behavior

Previous research has suggested that several primate species may be capable of reasoning by exclusion based on the finding that they can locate a hidden object when given information about where the object is not. The present research replicated and extended the literature by testing 2 Old World monkey species, lion-tailed macaques (Macaca silenus) and a hamadryas baboon (Papio hamadryas), and 2 New World species, capuchin monkeys (Sapajus apella) and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus). The New World monkeys were tested on the traditional 2-way object choice task, and all 4 species were also tested on a more complex 3-way object choice task. In addition, the squirrel monkeys were tested on a 2-way object choice task with auditory information. The results showed that, whereas the Old World species were able to infer by exclusion on the 3-object task, some of the capuchin monkeys had difficulty on each of the 2- and 3-cup tasks. All but 1 of the squirrel monkeys failed to infer successfully, and their strategies appeared to differ between the visual and auditory versions of the task. Taken together, this research suggests that the ability to succeed on this inference task may be present throughout Old World monkey species, but is fragile in the New World species tested thus far.

Marsh, Heidi L.; Vining, Alexander Q.; Levendoski, Emma K.; and Judge, Peter G. “Inference by Exclusion in Lion-Tailed Macaques (Macaca silenus), a Hamadryas Baboon (Papio hamadryas), Capuchins (Sapajus apella), and Squirrel Monkeys (Saimiri sciureus).” Journal of Comparative Psychology 129, no. 3 (2015) : 256-267.

Continue reading Peter G. Judge – Marsh, Heidi L.; Vining, Alexander Q.; Levendoski, Emma K.; and Judge, Peter G. “Inference by Exclusion in Lion-Tailed Macaques (Macaca silenus), a Hamadryas Baboon (Papio hamadryas), Capuchins (Sapajus apella), and Squirrel Monkeys (Saimiri sciureus).” Journal of Comparative Psychology 129, no. 3 (2015) : 256-267. »

Friday, February 26th, 2016

Andrea Halpern – Jakubowski, Kelly; Farrugia, Nicolas; Halpern, Andrea; Sankarpandi, Sathish K.; and Stewart, Lauren. “The Speed of Our Mental Soundtracks: Tracking the Tempo of Involuntary Musical Imagery in Everyday Life.” Memory & Cognition 43, no. 8 (2015) : 1229-1242.

Andrea Halpern, Professor of Psychology

The study of spontaneous and everyday cognitions is an area of rapidly growing interest. One of the most ubiquitous forms of spontaneous cognition is involuntary musical imagery (INMI), the involuntarily retrieved and repetitive mental replay of music. The present study introduced a novel method for capturing temporal features of INMI within a naturalistic setting. This method allowed for the investigation of two questions of interest to INMI researchers in a more objective way than previously possible, concerning (1) the precision of memory representations within INMI and (2) the interactions between INMI and concurrent affective state. Over the course of 4 days, INMI tempo was measured by asking participants to tap to the beat of their INMI with a wrist-worn accelerometer. Participants documented additional details regarding their INMI in a diary. Overall, the tempo of music within INMI was recalled from long-term memory in a highly veridical form, although with a regression to the mean for recalled tempo that parallels previous findings on voluntary musical imagery. A significant positive relationship was found between INMI tempo and subjective arousal, suggesting that INMI interacts with concurrent mood in a similar manner to perceived music. The results suggest several parallels between INMI and voluntary imagery, music perceptual processes, and other types of involuntary memories.

Jakubowski, Kelly; Farrugia, Nicolas; Halpern, Andrea; Sankarpandi, Sathish K.; and Stewart, Lauren. “The Speed of Our Mental Soundtracks: Tracking the Tempo of Involuntary Musical Imagery in Everyday Life.” Memory & Cognition 43, no. 8 (2015) : 1229-1242.

Continue reading Andrea Halpern – Jakubowski, Kelly; Farrugia, Nicolas; Halpern, Andrea; Sankarpandi, Sathish K.; and Stewart, Lauren. “The Speed of Our Mental Soundtracks: Tracking the Tempo of Involuntary Musical Imagery in Everyday Life.” Memory & Cognition 43, no. 8 (2015) : 1229-1242. »

Friday, February 26th, 2016

Andrea Halpern – Jakubowski, Kelly; Halpern, Andrea; Grierson, Mick; and Stewart, Lauren. “The Effect of Exercise-Induced Arousal on Chosen Tempi for Familiar Melodies.” Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 22, no. 2 (2015) : 559-565.

Andrea Halpern, Professor of Psychology

Many previous studies have shown that arousal affects time perception, suggesting a direct influence of arousal on the speed of the pacemaker of the internal clock. However, it is unknown whether arousal influences the mental representation of tempo (speed) for highly familiar and complex stimuli, such as well-known melodies, that have long-term representations in memory. Previous research suggests that mental representations of the tempo of familiar melodies are stable over time; the aim of the present study was to investigate whether these representations can be systematically altered via an increase in physiological arousal. Participants adjusted the tempo of 14 familiar melodies in real time until they found a tempo that matched their internal representation of the appropriate tempo for that piece. The task was carried out before and after a physiologically arousing (exercise) or nonarousing (anagrams) manipulation. Participants completed this task both while hearing the melodies aloud and while imagining them. Chosen tempi increased significantly following exercise-induced arousal, regardless of whether a melody was heard aloud or imagined. These findings suggest that a change in internal clock speed affects temporal judgments even for highly familiar and complex stimuli such as music.

Jakubowski, Kelly; Halpern, Andrea; Grierson, Mick; and Stewart, Lauren. “The Effect of Exercise-Induced Arousal on Chosen Tempi for Familiar Melodies.” Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 22, no. 2 (2015) : 559-565.

Continue reading Andrea Halpern – Jakubowski, Kelly; Halpern, Andrea; Grierson, Mick; and Stewart, Lauren. “The Effect of Exercise-Induced Arousal on Chosen Tempi for Familiar Melodies.” Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 22, no. 2 (2015) : 559-565. »

Friday, February 26th, 2016

Andrea Halpern – Schaal, Nora K.; Javadi, Amir-Homayoun; Halpern, Andrea; Pollok, Bettina; and Banissy, Michael J. “Right Parietal Cortex Mediates Recognition Memory for Melodies.” European Journal of Neuroscience 42, no. 1 (2015) : 1660-1666.

Andrea Halpern, Professor of Psychology

Functional brain imaging studies have highlighted the significance of right-lateralized temporal, frontal and parietal brain areas for memory for melodies. The present study investigated the involvement of bilateral posterior parietal cortices (PPCs) for the recognition memory of melodies using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Participants performed a recognition task before and after tDCS. The task included an encoding phase (12 melodies), a retention period, as well as a recognition phase (24 melodies). Experiment 1 revealed that anodal tDCS over the right PPC led to a deterioration of overall memory performance compared with sham. Experiment 2 confirmed the results of Experiment 1 and further showed that anodal tDCS over the left PPC did not show a modulatory effect on memory task performance, indicating a right lateralization for musical memory. Furthermore, both experiments revealed that the decline in memory for melodies can be traced back to an interference of anodal stimulation on the recollection process (remember judgements) rather than to familiarity judgements. Taken together, this study revealed a causal involvement of the right PPC for memory for melodies and demonstrated a key role for this brain region in the recollection process of the memory task.

Schaal, Nora K.; Javadi, Amir-Homayoun; Halpern, Andrea; Pollok, Bettina; and Banissy, Michael J. “Right Parietal Cortex Mediates Recognition Memory for Melodies.” European Journal of Neuroscience 42, no. 1 (2015) : 1660-1666.

Continue reading Andrea Halpern – Schaal, Nora K.; Javadi, Amir-Homayoun; Halpern, Andrea; Pollok, Bettina; and Banissy, Michael J. “Right Parietal Cortex Mediates Recognition Memory for Melodies.” European Journal of Neuroscience 42, no. 1 (2015) : 1660-1666. »

Friday, February 26th, 2016

Andrea Halpern – Halpern, Andrea; Golden, Hannah L.; Magdalinou, Nadia; Witoonpanich, Pirada; and Warren, Jason D. “Musical Tasks Targeting Preserved and Impaired Functions in Two Dementias.” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1337, no. 1 (2015) : 241-248.

Andrea Halpern, Professor of Psychology

Studies of musical abilities in dementia have for the most part been rather general assessments of abilities, for instance, assessing retention of music learned premorbidly. Here, we studied patients with dementias with contrasting cognitive profiles to explore specific aspects of music cognition under challenge. Patients suffered from Alzheimer’s disease (AD), in which a primary impairment is in forming new declarative memories, or Lewy body disease (PD/LBD), a type of parkinsonism in which executive impairments are prominent. In the AD patients, we examined musical imagery. Behavioral and neural evidence confirms involvement of perceptual networks in imagery, and these are relatively spared in early stages of the illness. Thus, we expected patients to have relatively intact imagery in a mental pitch comparison task. For the LBD patients, we tested whether executive dysfunction would extend to music. We probed inhibitory skills by asking for a speeded pitch or timbre judgment when the irrelevant dimension was held constant or also changed. Preliminary results show that AD patients score similarly to controls in the imagery tasks, but PD/LBD patients are impaired relative to controls in suppressing some irrelevant musical dimensions, particularly when the required judgment varies from trial to trial.

2014 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of The New York Academy of Sciences.

Halpern, Andrea; Golden, Hannah L.; Magdalinou, Nadia; Witoonpanich, Pirada; and Warren, Jason D. “Musical Tasks Targeting Preserved and Impaired Functions in Two Dementias.” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1337, no. 1 (2015) : 241-248.

Continue reading Andrea Halpern – Halpern, Andrea; Golden, Hannah L.; Magdalinou, Nadia; Witoonpanich, Pirada; and Warren, Jason D. “Musical Tasks Targeting Preserved and Impaired Functions in Two Dementias.” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1337, no. 1 (2015) : 241-248. »

Friday, February 26th, 2016

Andrea Halpern – Lima, Cesar F.; Lavan, Nadine; Evans, Samuel; Agnew, Zarinah; Halpern, Andrea R.; Shanmugalingam, Pradheep; Meekings, Sophie; Boebinger, Dana; Ostarek, Markus; McGettigan, Carolyn; Warren, Jane E.; and Scott, Sophie K. “Feel the Noise: Relating Individual Differences in Auditory Imagery to the Structure and Function of Sensorimotor Systems.” Cerebral Cortex 25, no. 11 (2015) : 4638-4650.

Andrea Halpern, Professor of Psychology

Humans can generate mental auditory images of voices or songs, sometimes perceiving them almost as vividly as perceptual experiences. The functional networks supporting auditory imagery have been described, but less is known about the systems associated with interindividual differences in auditory imagery. Combining voxel-based morphometry and fMRI, we examined the structural basis of interindividual differences in how auditory images are subjectively perceived, and explored associations between auditory imagery, sensory-based processing, and visual imagery. Vividness of auditory imagery correlated with gray matter volume in the supplementary motor area (SMA), parietal cortex, medial superior frontal gyrus, and middle frontal gyrus. An analysis of functional responses to different types of human vocalizations revealed that the SMA and parietal sites that predict imagery are also modulated by sound type. Using representational similarity analysis, we found that higher representational specificity of heard sounds in SMA predicts vividness of imagery, indicating a mechanistic link between sensory- and imagery-based processing in sensorimotor cortex. Vividness of imagery in the visual domain also correlated with SMA structure, and with auditory imagery scores. Altogether, these findings provide evidence for a signature of imagery in brain structure, and highlight a common role of perceptual-motor interactions for processing heard and internally generated auditory information.

Lima, Cesar F.; Lavan, Nadine; Evans, Samuel; Agnew, Zarinah; Halpern, Andrea R.; Shanmugalingam, Pradheep; Meekings, Sophie; Boebinger, Dana; Ostarek, Markus; McGettigan, Carolyn; Warren, Jane E.; and Scott, Sophie K. “Feel the Noise: Relating Individual Differences in Auditory Imagery to the Structure and Function of Sensorimotor Systems.” Cerebral Cortex 25, no. 11 (2015) : 4638-4650.

Continue reading Andrea Halpern – Lima, Cesar F.; Lavan, Nadine; Evans, Samuel; Agnew, Zarinah; Halpern, Andrea R.; Shanmugalingam, Pradheep; Meekings, Sophie; Boebinger, Dana; Ostarek, Markus; McGettigan, Carolyn; Warren, Jane E.; and Scott, Sophie K. “Feel the Noise: Relating Individual Differences in Auditory Imagery to the Structure and Function of Sensorimotor Systems.” Cerebral Cortex 25, no. 11 (2015) : 4638-4650. »

Friday, February 26th, 2016

Andrea Halpern – Pearce, Marcus T. and Halpern, Andrea. “Age-Related Patterns in Emotions Evoked by Music.”Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts 9, no. 3 (2015) : 248-253.

Andrea Halpern, Professor of Psychology

We presented older and younger nonmusician adult listeners with (mostly) unfamiliar excerpts of film music. All listeners rated their emotional reaction using the Geneva Emotional Music Scale 9 (GEMS-9; Zentner, Grandjean, & Scherer, 2008), and also rated familiarity and liking. The GEMS-9 was factor-analyzed into 3 factors of Animacy, Valence, and Arousal. Although the 2 age groups liked the music equally well, and showed roughly the same pattern of responses to the different emotion categories, the younger group showed a wider range of emotional reactivity on all the factors. We found support for a type of positivity effect, in that older people found Happy music somewhat less happy than did younger people, but found Sad music much less sad than did younger people. Older people also rated Fearful music more positively than did younger people. We propose that the GEMS-9 scale is an efficient and effective device to collect evoked emotion data for a wide age range of listeners.

Pearce, Marcus T. and Halpern, Andrea. “Age-Related Patterns in Emotions Evoked by Music.”Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts 9, no. 3 (2015) : 248-253.

Continue reading Andrea Halpern – Pearce, Marcus T. and Halpern, Andrea. “Age-Related Patterns in Emotions Evoked by Music.”Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts 9, no. 3 (2015) : 248-253. »

Friday, February 26th, 2016

Andrea Halpern – Pfordresher, Peter Q.; Halpern, Andrea; and Greenspon, Emma B. “A Mechanism for Sensorimotor Translation in Singing: the Multi-Modal Imagery Association (MMIA) Model.” Music Perception 32, no. 3 (2015) : 242-253.

Andrea Halpern, Professor of Psychology

WE PROPOSE A NEW FRAMEWORK TO UNDERSTAND singing accuracy, based on multi-modal imagery associations: the MMIA model. This model is based on recent data suggesting a link between auditory imagery and singing accuracy, evidence for a link between imagery and the functioning of internal models for sensorimotor associations, and the use of imagery in singing pedagogy. By this account, imagery involves automatic associations between different modalities, which in the present context comprise associations between pitch height and the regulation of vocal fold tension. Importantly, these associations are based on probabilistic relationships that may vary with respect to their precision and accuracy. We further describe how this framework may be extended to multi-modal associations at the sequential level, and how these associations develop. The model we propose here constitutes one part of a larger architecture responsible for singing, but at the same time is cast at a general level that can extend to multi-modal associations outside the domain of singing.

Pfordresher, Peter Q.; Halpern, Andrea; and Greenspon, Emma B. “A Mechanism for Sensorimotor Translation in Singing: the Multi-Modal Imagery Association (MMIA) Model.” Music Perception 32, no. 3 (2015) : 242-253.

Continue reading Andrea Halpern – Pfordresher, Peter Q.; Halpern, Andrea; and Greenspon, Emma B. “A Mechanism for Sensorimotor Translation in Singing: the Multi-Modal Imagery Association (MMIA) Model.” Music Perception 32, no. 3 (2015) : 242-253. »

Friday, February 26th, 2016

William F. Flack, Jr. – Flack, William F. Jr.; Kimble, Matthew O.; Campbell, Brooke E.; Hopper, Allyson B.; Peterca, Oana; and Heller, Emily J. “Sexual Assault Victimization Among Female Undergraduates During Study Abroad: A Single Campus Survey Study.” Journal of Interpersonal Violence 30, no. 20 (2015) : 3453-3466.

William F. Flack, Jr., Associate Professor of Psychology

Almost all research on sexual assault victimization among undergraduate university students pertains to incidents that occur on domestic college and university campuses. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of sexual assault victimization and related factors among undergraduates in the context of study-abroad programs. Two hundred eight female students (52% response rate) from a small university in the northeastern United States who had recently studied abroad responded to an online survey containing measures of sexual assault, posttraumatic stress responses (PSR), and alcohol consumption. Almost 19% of the respondents indicated one or more types of sexual assault victimization. Approximately 17% reported non-consensual sexual touching, 7% attempted rape, 4% rape, with 9% reporting attempted rape or rape. As in domestic studies, victimization in this sample was related positively to alcohol consumption and PSR. Use of force was the most frequently reported perpetrator tactic. In sum, the high rates of sexual assault victimization reported by this sample during study abroad replicate previous findings. This context requires further attention from sexual assault researchers, especially given the increasing numbers of university students engaging in study abroad, and from campus support personnel who may be unaware of the likelihood of assault in this context.

The Author(s) 2014.

Flack, William F. Jr.; Kimble, Matthew O.; Campbell, Brooke E.; Hopper, Allyson B.; Peterca, Oana; and Heller, Emily J. “Sexual Assault Victimization Among Female Undergraduates During Study Abroad: A Single Campus Survey Study.” Journal of Interpersonal Violence 30, no. 20 (2015) : 3453-3466.

Continue reading William F. Flack, Jr. – Flack, William F. Jr.; Kimble, Matthew O.; Campbell, Brooke E.; Hopper, Allyson B.; Peterca, Oana; and Heller, Emily J. “Sexual Assault Victimization Among Female Undergraduates During Study Abroad: A Single Campus Survey Study.” Journal of Interpersonal Violence 30, no. 20 (2015) : 3453-3466. »

Friday, February 26th, 2016

David Evans – Evans, David W.; Lazar, Steven M.; Boomer, K B.; Mitchel, Aaron; Michael, Andrew M.; and Moore, Gregory J. “Social Cognition and Brain Morphology: Implications for Developmental Brain Dysfunction.” Brain Imaging and Behavior 9, no. 2 (2015) : 264-274.

Chris Boyatzis, Professor of Psychology

The social-cognitive deficits associated with several neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders have been linked to structural and functional brain anomalies. Given the recent appreciation for quantitative approaches to behavior, in this study we examined the brain-behavior links in social cognition in healthy young adults from a quantitative approach. Twenty-two participants were administered quantitative measures of social cognition, including the social responsiveness scale (SRS), the empathizing questionnaire (EQ) and the systemizing questionnaire (SQ). Participants underwent a structural, 3-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) procedure that yielded both volumetric (voxel count) and asymmetry indices. Model fitting with backward elimination revealed that a combination of cortical, limbic and striatal regions accounted for significant variance in social behavior and cognitive styles that are typically associated with neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. Specifically, as caudate and amygdala volumes deviate from the typical R > L asymmetry, and cortical gray matter becomes more R > L asymmetrical, overall SRS and Emotion Recognition scores increase. Social Avoidance was explained by a combination of cortical gray matter, pallidum (rightward asymmetry) and caudate (deviation from rightward asymmetry). Rightward asymmetry of the pallidum was the sole predictor of Interpersonal Relationships and Repetitive Mannerisms. Increased D-scores on the EQ-SQ, an indication of greater systemizing relative to empathizing, was also explained by deviation from the typical R > L asymmetry of the caudate.

Evans, David W.; Lazar, Steven M.; Boomer, K B.; Mitchel, Aaron; Michael, Andrew M.; and Moore, Gregory J. “Social Cognition and Brain Morphology: Implications for Developmental Brain Dysfunction.” Brain Imaging and Behavior 9, no. 2 (2015) : 264-274.

Continue reading David Evans – Evans, David W.; Lazar, Steven M.; Boomer, K B.; Mitchel, Aaron; Michael, Andrew M.; and Moore, Gregory J. “Social Cognition and Brain Morphology: Implications for Developmental Brain Dysfunction.” Brain Imaging and Behavior 9, no. 2 (2015) : 264-274. »

Friday, February 26th, 2016

Chris Boyatzis – Cook, Kaye V.; Kimball, Cynthia; Boyatzis, Chris; and Leonard, Kathleen C. “Religiousness and Spirituality Among Highly Religious Emerging Adults.” Journal of Psychology and Christianity 34, no. 3 (2015) : 252-265.

Chris Boyatzis, Professor of Psychology

Three mixed-methods studies assessed whether students at Christian colleges maintain a traditional faith over time. For a population of recent, two-year, and four-year alumni at two Christian colleges (Study 1), as well as first-year and senior undergraduate students at one of the two Christian colleges (Studies 2 and 3), we measured changes in denominational commitments, religious attitudes and behavior, and descriptions of changing points in faith. We analyzed the interview data (faith changing points) for instances of moralistic therapeutic deism (MTD), which Smith and his colleagues (Smith & Denton, 2005; Smith & Snell, 2009) have identified as characteristic of emerging adults’ religiousness. MTD is described as a watered-down faith in which God is understood as a personal helper who sets moral standards but places little demand on the believer. Our findings indicate that undergraduates and alumni from Christian college contexts maintain solid faith commitments that are not consistent with MTD. Instead they hold a robust, traditional faith marked by trust in God, ownership of their own faith, and an embrace of historically central religious constructs, consistent with the traditionalists (Smith & Snell, 2009) and conservative believers (Arnett, 2014). In their traditionalism, the undergraduates in Study 3 experience themselves as having greater concern for spirituality (or faith) than when they entered college, but no greater concern for religiousness (or institutional commitment), describing themselves as “more spiritual but less religious.”

Cook, Kaye V.; Kimball, Cynthia; Boyatzis, Chris; and Leonard, Kathleen C. “Religiousness and Spirituality Among Highly Religious Emerging Adults.” Journal of Psychology and Christianity 34, no. 3 (2015) : 252-265.

Continue reading Chris Boyatzis – Cook, Kaye V.; Kimball, Cynthia; Boyatzis, Chris; and Leonard, Kathleen C. “Religiousness and Spirituality Among Highly Religious Emerging Adults.” Journal of Psychology and Christianity 34, no. 3 (2015) : 252-265. »

Friday, February 26th, 2016

Michael James – James, Michael Rabinder. “Two Concepts of Constituency.” Journal of Politics 77, no. 2 (2015) : 381-393.

Michael James, Associate Professor of Political Science

In this essay, I challenge the conceptual and normative arguments of Andrew Rehfeld’s The Concept of Constituency. I argue that Rehfeld conflates two distinct concepts of constituency as a result of errors in his normative argument for random, permanent constituencies. In response, I carefully distinguish the two concepts of objective constituency (the grouping of citizens into geographic or other electoral rolls through parametric action) and subjective constituency (the formation of cohesive voting blocs to elect a representative through strategic and communicative action between constituents and candidates). Distinguishing between objective and subjective constituency allows me to identify the shortcomings in the normative analyses of democratic constituencies proffered by Lisa Disch and Thomas Pogge. I then propose the use of random, permanent constituencies, each of which elects five representatives through the single transferable vote. This facilitates the representation of racial and ethnic minorities, while encouraging constituency deliberation aimed at the national interest.

James, Michael Rabinder. “Two Concepts of Constituency.” Journal of Politics 77, no. 2 (2015) : 381-393.

Continue reading Michael James – James, Michael Rabinder. “Two Concepts of Constituency.” Journal of Politics 77, no. 2 (2015) : 381-393. »

Friday, February 26th, 2016

Michael James – James, Michael. “Constituency Deliberation.” Political Research Quarterly 68, no. 3 (2015) : 552-563.

Michael James, Associate Professor of Political Science

How do we distinguish legitimate, democratic representation from illegitimate, undemocratic elite rule? Empirical scholars of representation typically rely on the “bedrock norm” that democratic representatives must respond to the antecedent interests of their constituents, but empirical studies of public opinion suggest that constituents’ interests emerge following engagement with their representatives. The result is the “constituency paradox”: representatives are supposed to respond to constituent interests, interests that representatives themselves help to create. Deliberative democratic theories seek to circumvent this paradox by distinguishing between representatives who communicatively educate their constituents from those who strategically manipulate them, but it is empirically impossible to distinguish legitimate education from illegitimate manipulation. Nondeliberative criteria requiring elite competition and popular contestation also fail to ground legitimate democratic representation. In response, I develop a model of constituency deliberation that does not rely on the bedrock norm, accepts strategic as well as communicative action, acknowledges the asymmetric but reciprocal relationship between constituents and representatives, and uses a systemic approach to assess democratic representation. This deliberative model leads to institutional reforms that avoid the bedrock norm and seek to mitigate representative manipulation by creating space for constituents to respond to representatives’ claims to represent their interests.

James, Michael. “Constituency Deliberation.” Political Research Quarterly 68, no. 3 (2015) : 552-563.

Continue reading Michael James – James, Michael. “Constituency Deliberation.” Political Research Quarterly 68, no. 3 (2015) : 552-563. »

Friday, February 26th, 2016

John A. Doces – Doces, John A. and Magee, Christopher S. “Trade and Democracy: A Factor-Based Approach.” International Interactions 41, no. 2 (2015) : 407-425.

John A. Doces, Associate Professor of Political Science

We study the relationship between trade openness and democracy using a data set with capital-labor ratios, trade flows, and regime type for 142 countries between 1960 and 2007. We are among the first to test a prediction that emerges from the model of Acemoglu and Robinson (2006): Relative factor endowments determine whether trade promotes democracy or not. The statistical results from two-stage least squares estimation indicate that trade is positively associated with democracy among labor-abundant countries but that trade has a negative effect on democracy in capital-abundant countries. The results are not robust, however, and thus we conclude that the evidence in support of their argument is relatively weak.

Doces, John A. and Magee, Christopher S. “Trade and Democracy: A Factor-Based Approach.” International Interactions 41, no. 2 (2015) : 407-425.

Continue reading John A. Doces – Doces, John A. and Magee, Christopher S. “Trade and Democracy: A Factor-Based Approach.” International Interactions 41, no. 2 (2015) : 407-425. »