Monday, February 29th, 2016

Jonathan Lyons – Lyons, Jonathan. “Brothers.” Palaver: UNCW’s Interdisciplinary Journal, (2015).

Jonathan Lyons, Assistant Professor, College Core Curriculum Three brothers—eldest, middle, youngest—the middle brother bookended by two siblings who are cases of failures of birth control: • The eldest arrives in 1967; • he is 13 months ahead of the middle brother; • he is four years and nine months ahead of the youngest. Three brothers whose first home is located on Bryant Street in Waterloo, Iowa, said home being formerly the childhood home of the brothers’ mother. The eldest will later, as an adult, calculate the timing of his conception and learn that his mother, who was sixteen at the […]

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Monday, February 29th, 2016

Jonathan Lyons – Lyons, Jonathan. “Sore Eel Cheese by the Flakxus Group.” Journal of Experimental Fiction, special edition.

Jonathan Lyons, Assistant Professor, College Core Curriculum This is a special, limited-edition of the Journal of Experimental Fiction, featuring experimental fictions constructed on coasters (the kind for glasses) and delivered in cheese boxes. “Sore Eel Cheese by the Flakxus Group.” Journal of Experimental Fiction, special edition.

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Monday, February 29th, 2016

Chris Boyatzis – Cook, Kaye V.; Kimball, Cynthia N.; Leonard, Kathleen C.; and Boyatzis, Chris. “The Complexity of Quest in Emerging Adults’ Religiosity, Well-Being, and Identity.” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 53, no. 1 (2014) : 73-89.

Chris Boyatzis, Professor of Psychology A growing body of literature indicates a modestly positive association between religiosity and spirituality as predictors of psychological health (anxiety and depression), suggesting they serve as personal resiliency factors. The purpose of this study was to expand our understanding of the relationships among these constructs. Using Lazarus’s Transactional Model of Stress as a theoretical framework, we examined: (a) the extent to which spirituality and religiosity mediated and/or moderated the association between perceived stress and psychological health and (b) whether there was a moderated (religiosity) mediation (spirituality) between stress and health. The Perceived Stress Scale, Daily […]

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Thelathia Young – Young, Thelathia and Miller, Shannon J. “Ase and Amen, Sister! Black Feminist Scholars Engage in Interdisciplinary, Dialogical, Transformative Ethical Praxis.” Journal of Religious Ethics 43, no. 2 (2015) : 289-316.

Thelathia Young, Assistant Professor of Women’s and Gender Studies

At times, the academy seems devoid of justice because it emphasizes the cultivation of knowledge often denied to marginalized individuals and communities. As black queer feminist scholars doing praxis-driven theorizing from separate fields on the subject of black queer families and communities, we employ research methods that resist the dynamics of power and privilege that exist within normative researcher-participant exchanges. In this essay, we explore and highlight the ethical, justice-oriented, and dialogical relationship between researcher-scholars and research participants. Through story and theory, we illustrate and argue that autoethnographies and narrative interviews can act as epistemological excavation tools for both researchers and participants, as they become sites of individual and collective consciousness. Our work resists capitalist models of research and instead promotes a justice-oriented and community-derived building of knowledge.

Young, Thelathia and Miller, Shannon J. “Ase and Amen, Sister! Black Feminist Scholars Engage in Interdisciplinary, Dialogical, Transformative Ethical Praxis.” Journal of Religious Ethics 43, no. 2 (2015) : 289-316.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Aaron D. Mitchel – Lusk, Laina G. and Mitchel, Aaron D. “Differential Gaze Patterns on Eyes and Mouth During Audiovisual Speech Segmentation.” Frontiers in Psychology 7, (2016) : 52-52.

Aaron D. Mitchel, Assistant Professor of Psychology

Speech is inextricably multisensory: both auditory and visual components provide critical information for all aspects of speech processing, including speech segmentation, the visual components of which have been the target of a growing number of studies. In particular, a recent study (Mitchel and Weiss, 2014) established that adults can utilize facial cues (i.e., visual prosody) to identify word boundaries in fluent speech. The current study expanded upon these results, using an eye tracker to identify highly attended facial features of the audiovisual display used in Mitchel and Weiss (2014). Subjects spent the most time watching the eyes and mouth. A significant trend in gaze durations was found with the longest gaze duration on the mouth, followed by the eyes and then the nose. In addition, eye gaze patterns changed across familiarization as subjects learned the word boundaries, showing decreased attention to the mouth in later blocks while attention on other facial features remained consistent. These findings highlight the importance of the visual component of speech processing and suggest that the mouth may play a critical role in visual speech segmentation.

Lusk, Laina G. and Mitchel, Aaron D. “Differential Gaze Patterns on Eyes and Mouth During Audiovisual Speech Segmentation.” Frontiers in Psychology 7, (2016) : 52-52.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

John David Penniman – Penniman, John David. “‘The Health-Giving Cup’: Cyprian’s Ep. 63 and the Medicinal Power of Eucharistic Wine.” Journal of Early Christian Studies 23, no. 2 (2015) : 189-211.

John David Penniman, Assistant Professor of Religious Studies

Cyprian’s Epistle 63 represents the earliest extant account of the proper meaning and administration of the eucharistic cup. Against a group of Christians who were taking only water, Cyprian argues that wine is necessary for the ritual to be effective. While there has been much discussion surrounding the biblical references marshaled by Cyprian to prove his point, this article explores the extent to which those references are inflected through lexical and conceptual categories relating to the medical usage of wine. Wine figured prominently in literature on illness, health, and healing that proliferated during the Roman Empire. This article locates Cyprian within that broader dynamic, and argues that his emphasis on the health-giving effects of the eucharistic cup in Ep. 63 reflects similar descriptions of the medicinal power of wine found in manuals of Roman medicine and other folklore traditions.

Penniman, John David. “‘The Health-Giving Cup’: Cyprian’s Ep. 63 and the Medicinal Power of Eucharistic Wine.” Journal of Early Christian Studies 23, no. 2 (2015) : 189-211.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Aaron D. Mitchel – Evans, David W.; Lazar, Steven M.; Boomer, K B.; Mitchel, Aaron; Michael, Andrew M.; and Moore, Gregory J. “Social Cognition and Brain Morphology: Implications for Developmental Brain Dysfunction.” Brain Imaging and Behavior 9, no. 2 (2015) : 264-274.

Aaron D. Mitchel, Assistant Professor of Psychology

The social-cognitive deficits associated with several neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders have been linked to structural and functional brain anomalies. Given the recent appreciation for quantitative approaches to behavior, in this study we examined the brain-behavior links in social cognition in healthy young adults from a quantitative approach. Twenty-two participants were administered quantitative measures of social cognition, including the social responsiveness scale (SRS), the empathizing questionnaire (EQ) and the systemizing questionnaire (SQ). Participants underwent a structural, 3-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) procedure that yielded both volumetric (voxel count) and asymmetry indices. Model fitting with backward elimination revealed that a combination of cortical, limbic and striatal regions accounted for significant variance in social behavior and cognitive styles that are typically associated with neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. Specifically, as caudate and amygdala volumes deviate from the typical R > L asymmetry, and cortical gray matter becomes more R > L asymmetrical, overall SRS and Emotion Recognition scores increase. Social Avoidance was explained by a combination of cortical gray matter, pallidum (rightward asymmetry) and caudate (deviation from rightward asymmetry). Rightward asymmetry of the pallidum was the sole predictor of Interpersonal Relationships and Repetitive Mannerisms. Increased D-scores on the EQ-SQ, an indication of greater systemizing relative to empathizing, was also explained by deviation from the typical R > L asymmetry of the caudate.

Evans, David W.; Lazar, Steven M.; Boomer, K B.; Mitchel, Aaron; Michael, Andrew M.; and Moore, Gregory J. “Social Cognition and Brain Morphology: Implications for Developmental Brain Dysfunction.” Brain Imaging and Behavior 9, no. 2 (2015) : 264-274.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

John David Penniman – Penniman, John David. “Fed to Perfection: Mother’s Milk, Roman Family Values, and the Transformation of the Soul in Gregory of Nyssa.” Church History 84, no. 3 (2015) : 495-530.

John David Penniman, Assistant Professor of Religious Studies

Prompted by Michel Foucault’s observation that “salvation is first of all essentially subsistence,” this essay explores Gregory of Nyssa’s discussion of Christian spiritual formation as a kind of salvific and transformative feeding of infants. This article argues that the prominent role of nourishment-and specifically breast milk-in Gregory’s theory of progressive Christian perfection reflects broader Roman era family values concerning the power of breast feeding in the proper development of a child. With particular attention to Gregory’s Encomium for Saint Basil, the Life of Moses, and his Homilies on the Song of Songs, this article demonstrates that references to the power of nourishment are no ” mere metaphor” but rather represent an intensification of the prominent belief in antiquity that human nature can be altered according to the food a person eats. As such, Gregory employs the female body and its putatively maternal function as a regulatory symbol for Christian identity-formation. Mother’s milk is thus offered as a mechanism for preserving and transmitting the ideal form of the Christian community that Gregory found embodied in the ambiguously gendered characters of the Song of Songs. True Christians, in Gregory’s account, are identified by the milk on which they were fed and, in turn, the nurturing care they offer to others.

Penniman, John David. “Fed to Perfection: Mother’s Milk, Roman Family Values, and the Transformation of the Soul in Gregory of Nyssa.” Church History 84, no. 3 (2015) : 495-530.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Kevin P. Myers – Wald, Hallie S. and Myers, Kevin P. “Enhanced Flavor-Nutrient Conditioning in Obese Rats on a High-Fat, High-Carbohydrate Choice Diet.” Physiology & Behavior 151, (2015) : 102-110.

Kevin P. Myers, Associate Professor of Psychology

Through flavor-nutrient conditioning rats learn to prefer and increase their intake of flavors paired with rewarding, postingestive nutritional consequences. Since obesity is linked to altered experience of food reward and to perturbations of nutrient sensing, we investigated flavor-nutrient learning in rats made obese using a high fat/high carbohydrate (HFHC) choice model of diet-induced obesity (ad libitum lard and maltodextrin solution plus standard rodent chow). Forty rats were maintained on HFHC to induce substantial weight gain, and 20 were maintained on chow only (CON). Among HFHC rats, individual differences in propensity to weight gain were studied by comparing those with the highest proportional weight gain (obesity prone, OP) to those with the lowest (obesity resistant, OR). Sensitivity to postingestive food reward was tested in a flavor-nutrient conditioning protocol. To measure initial, within-meal stimulation of flavor acceptance by post-oral nutrient sensing, first, in sessions 1-3, baseline licking was measured while rats consumed grape- or cherry-flavored saccharin accompanied by intragastric (IG) water infusion. Then, in the next three test sessions they received the opposite flavor paired with 5ml of IG 12% glucose. Finally, after additional sessions alternating between the two flavor-infusion contingencies, preference was measured in a two-bottle choice between the flavors without IG infusions. HFHC-OP rats showed stronger initial enhancement of intake in the first glucose infusion sessions than CON or HFHC-OR rats. OP rats also most strongly preferred the glucose-paired flavor in the two-bottle choice. These differences between OP versus OR and CON rats suggest that obesity is linked to responsiveness to postoral nutrient reward, consistent with the view that flavor-nutrient learning perpetuates overeating in obesity.Copyright 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Wald, Hallie S. and Myers, Kevin P. “Enhanced Flavor-Nutrient Conditioning in Obese Rats on a High-Fat, High-Carbohydrate Choice Diet.” Physiology & Behavior 151, (2015) : 102-110.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Carl Milofsky – Green, Brandn; Jones, Kristal; Boyd, Neil; Milofsky, Carl; and Martin, Eric C. “Students Implement the Affordable Care Act: A Model for Undergraduate Teaching and Research in Community Health and Sociology.” Journal of Community Health 40, no. 3 (2015) : 605-611.

Carl Milofsky, Professor of Sociology

The implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) provides an opportunity for undergraduate students to observe and experience first-hand changing social policies and their impacts for individuals and communities. This article overviews an action research and teaching project developed at an undergraduate liberal arts university and focused on providing ACA enrollment assistance as a way to support student engagement with community health. The project was oriented around education, enrollment and evaluation activities in the community, and students and faculty together reflected on and analyzed the experiences that came from the research and outreach project. Student learning centered around applying concepts of diversity and political agency to health policy and community health systems. Students reported and faculty observed an unexpected empowerment for students who were able to use their university-learned critical thinking skills to explain complex systems to a wide range of audiences. In addition, because the project was centered at a university with no health professions programs, the project provided students interested in community and public health with the opportunity to reflect on how health and access to health care is conditioned by social context. The structure and pedagogical approaches and implications of the action research and teaching project is presented here as a case study for how to engage undergraduates in questions of community and public health through the lens of health policy and community engagement.

Green, Brandn; Jones, Kristal; Boyd, Neil; Milofsky, Carl; and Martin, Eric C. “Students Implement the Affordable Care Act: A Model for Undergraduate Teaching and Research in Community Health and Sociology.” Journal of Community Health 40, no. 3 (2015) : 605-611.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Kevin P. Myers – Brunstrom, Jeffrey M.; Rogers, Peter J.; Myers, Kevin P.; and Holtzman, Jon D. “In Search of Flavour-Nutrient Learning: A Study of the Samburu Pastoralists of North-Central Kenya.” Appetite 91, (2015) : 415-425.

Kevin P. Myers, Associate Professor of Psychology

Much of our dietary behaviour is learned. In particular, one suggestion is that ‘flavour-nutrient learning’ (F-NL) influences both choice and intake of food. F-NL occurs when an association forms between the orosensory properties of a food and its postingestive effects. Unfortunately, this process has been difficult to evaluate because F-NL is rarely observed in controlled studies of adult humans. One possibility is that we are disposed to F-NL. However, learning is compromised by exposure to a complex Western diet that includes a wide range of energy-dense foods. To test this idea we explored evidence for F-NL in a sample of semi-nomadic pastoralists who eat a very limited diet, and who are lean and food stressed. Our Samburu participants (N = 68) consumed a sensory-matched portion (400 g) of either a novel low (0.72 kcal/g) or higher (1.57 kcal/g) energy-dense semi-solid food on two training days, and an intermediate version on day 3. Before and after each meal we measured appetite and assessed expected satiation and liking for the test food. We found no evidence of F-NL. Nevertheless, self-reported measures were very consistent and, as anticipated, expected satiation increased as the test food became familiar (expectedsatiation drift). Surprisingly,we observed insensitivity to the effects of test-meal energy density on measures of post-meal appetite. To explore this further we repeated a single training day using participants (N = 52) from the UK. Unlike in the Samburu, the higher energy-dense meal caused greater suppression of appetite. These observations expose interesting cross-cultural differences in sensitivity to the energy content of food. More generally, our work illustrates how measures can be translated to assess different populations, highlighting the potential for further comparisons of this kind.

Brunstrom, Jeffrey M.; Rogers, Peter J.; Myers, Kevin P.; and Holtzman, Jon D. “In Search of Flavour-Nutrient Learning: A Study of the Samburu Pastoralists of North-Central Kenya.” Appetite 91, (2015) : 415-425.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Carl Milofsky – Marsh, Ben; Milofsky, Carl; Kissam, Edward; and Arcury, Thomas A. “Understanding the Role of Social Factors in Farmworker Housing and Health.” New Solutions : a Journal of Environmental and Occupational Health Policy 25, no. 3 (2015) : 313-333.

Carl Milofsky, Professor of Sociology

Differences in social advantage significantly influence health conditions and life expectancy within any population. Such factors reproduce historic class, race, and ethnic disparities in community success. Few populations in the United States face more social and economic disadvantage than farmworkers, and farmworker housing has significant potential to ameliorate or amplify the health impact of those disadvantages. Drawing on the limited direct research on farmworkers, and on additional research about poor, isolated, and immigrant societies, we propose four mechanisms through which housing can be expected to affect farmworker health: quality of social capital within farmworker communities, stress effects of poor housing situations, effects of housing on social support for healthy behaviors, and interactions among these factors, especially effects on children that can last for generations. Policy and planning definitions of “adequate” farmworker housing should take a more holistic view of housing needs to support specific social and community benefits in design decisions.

The Author(s) 2015.

Marsh, Ben; Milofsky, Carl; Kissam, Edward; and Arcury, Thomas A. “Understanding the Role of Social Factors in Farmworker Housing and Health.” New Solutions : a Journal of Environmental and Occupational Health Policy 25, no. 3 (2015) : 313-333.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Jennie Stevenson – Stevenson, Jennie; Francomacaro, Lisa; Bohidar, Amelia; Young, K. A.; Pesarchick, B. F.; Buirkle, J. M.; McMahon, Elyse; and O’Bryan, C. M. “Ghrelin Receptor (GHS-R1A) Antagonism Alters Preference for Ethanol and Sucrose in a Concentration-Dependent Manner in Prairie Voles.” Physiology & Behavior 155, (2016) : 231-236.

Jennie Stevenson, Assistant Professor of Psychology

Ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1A) activity has been implicated in reward for preferred foods and drugs; however, a recent study in our laboratory indicated that GHS-R1A antagonism reduces early (after only four exposures) preference for 20% ethanol, but not 10% sucrose in prairie voles, a genetically diverse high alcohol-consuming species. The purpose of the present study was to determine if these effects of GHS-R1A antagonism depend on the concentration of the rewarding solution being consumed. We first characterized preference for varying concentrations of ethanol and sucrose. Two bottle tests of each ethanol concentration versus water indicated that 10% and 20% ethanol are less preferred than 3% ethanol, and a follow-up direct comparison of 10% vs. 20% showed that 10% was preferred over 20%. Direct two-bottle comparisons of 2% vs. 5%, 2% vs. 10%, and 5% vs. 10% sucrose showed that 10% sucrose was most preferred, and 2% sucrose was least preferred. The effects of JMV 2959, a GHS-R1A antagonist, on preference for each concentration of ethanol and sucrose were then tested. In a between groups design prairie voles were given four two-hour drinking sessions in which animals had access to ethanol (3, 10, or 20%) versus water, or sucrose (2, 5, or 10%) versus water every other day. Saline habituation injections were given 30min before the third drinking session. JMV 2959 (i.p.; 9mg/kg), a GHS-R1A antagonist, or saline was administered 30min before the fourth drinking session. JMV 2959 reduced preference for 20% ethanol and 2% sucrose, but had no significant effect on preference for the other ethanol and sucrose concentrations. These data identify constraints on the role of GHS-R1A in early preference for ethanol and sucrose, and the concentration-dependent effects suggest strong preference for a reward may limit the importance of GHS-R1A activity.Copyright 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Stevenson, Jennie; Francomacaro, Lisa; Bohidar, Amelia; Young, K. A.; Pesarchick, B. F.; Buirkle, J. M.; McMahon, Elyse; and O’Bryan, C. M. “Ghrelin Receptor (GHS-R1A) Antagonism Alters Preference for Ethanol and Sucrose in a Concentration-Dependent Manner in Prairie Voles.” Physiology & Behavior 155, (2016) : 231-236.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Alexander Riley – Riley, Alexander. “Ethnography of the Ek-Static Experience: Poesie Auto-Socioanalytique in the Work of Michel Leiris.” Journal of Contemporary Ethnography 44, no. 3 (2015) : 362-386.

Alexander Riley, Professor of Sociology

Much work has been done in recent decades to emphasize the need in ethnographic writing to grapple with questions of authorship, perspective, aesthetics, emotional resonance, and style. Various forms of reflexive ethnographic writing, and especially autoethnography, have opened up new expressive avenues. In this article, I argue that a figure who is at present poorly known in English-language social scientific circles, the French ethnographer, poet, and writer Michel Leiris (1901-1990), pushes this kind of autobiographical ethnographic writing forward in powerful ways. In brief, Leiris offers a powerfully effective method (which I call poesie auto-socioanalytique) that ties subjective experience into a larger objective structural framework via a method that (1) focuses on cultural meaning in an autobiographical experiential framework, that is, from the inside, (2) is expressly concerned with the role that language itself plays in meaning and memory, and (3) examines extraordinary situations in which one stands, temporarily, outside the normal interactional world in an existential frame of peculiar intensity and effervescence (the ek-static), and uses the Durkheimian conception of the sacred-profane opposition, along with the binary differentiation of the sacred into pure and impure varieties, as a structural theoretical tool for these descriptions. He makes an important contribution to ongoing discussions in the disciplines of cultural anthropology and cultural sociology concerning the interpretation and description of cultural meaning.

Riley, Alexander. “Ethnography of the Ek-Static Experience: Poesie Auto-Socioanalytique in the Work of Michel Leiris.” Journal of Contemporary Ethnography 44, no. 3 (2015) : 362-386.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Andrea Halpern – Jakubowski, Kelly; Halpern, Andrea; Grierson, Mick; and Stewart, Lauren. “The Effect of Exercise-Induced Arousal on Chosen Tempi for Familiar Melodies.” Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 22, no. 2 (2015) : 559-565.

Andrea Halpern, Professor of Psychology

Many previous studies have shown that arousal affects time perception, suggesting a direct influence of arousal on the speed of the pacemaker of the internal clock. However, it is unknown whether arousal influences the mental representation of tempo (speed) for highly familiar and complex stimuli, such as well-known melodies, that have long-term representations in memory. Previous research suggests that mental representations of the tempo of familiar melodies are stable over time; the aim of the present study was to investigate whether these representations can be systematically altered via an increase in physiological arousal. Participants adjusted the tempo of 14 familiar melodies in real time until they found a tempo that matched their internal representation of the appropriate tempo for that piece. The task was carried out before and after a physiologically arousing (exercise) or nonarousing (anagrams) manipulation. Participants completed this task both while hearing the melodies aloud and while imagining them. Chosen tempi increased significantly following exercise-induced arousal, regardless of whether a melody was heard aloud or imagined. These findings suggest that a change in internal clock speed affects temporal judgments even for highly familiar and complex stimuli such as music.

Jakubowski, Kelly; Halpern, Andrea; Grierson, Mick; and Stewart, Lauren. “The Effect of Exercise-Induced Arousal on Chosen Tempi for Familiar Melodies.” Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 22, no. 2 (2015) : 559-565.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Jennie Stevenson – Stevenson, Jennie; Buirkle, J M.; Buckley, L E.; Young, Katelyn; Albertini, K M.; and Bohidar, Amelia. “GHS-R1A Antagonism Reduces Alcohol but Not Sucrose Preference in Prairie Voles.” Physiology & Behavior 147, (2015) : 23-29.

Jennie Stevenson, Assistant Professor of Psychology

Rationale: Ghrelin has been shown to mediate food and drug reward in rats and mice, and the rewarding properties of sweet foods and alcohol are known to contribute to overconsumption of these substances. Objective: To investigate the effects of GHS-R1A antagonism in a novel animal model of high alcohol consumption, the prairie vole, and to characterize the role of ghrelin in limited access consumption of a drug (alcohol) and non-drug (sucrose) reward. Methods: Female prairie voles were given four 2-h two-bottle drinking sessions, occurring every other day. During drinking sessions, animals had access to 20% ethanol vs water or 10% sucrose vs water. Pre-treatment with the GHS-R1A antagonist JMV 2959 (i.p.; 0.0, 9.0 mg/kg Experiments 1 and 2;0.0, 9.0, 12.0 mg/kg Experiments 3 and 4.) occurred 30-min before the fourth session. To determine if the amount of exposure to sucrose sessions affected the efficacy of JMV 2959, in Experiment 5 animals were given 16 daily 2-hr drinking sessions with 10% sucrose vs water. JMV 2959 treatment (0.0 or 9.0 mg/kg) occurred 30-min prior to the 16th session. Results: JMV 2959 reduced alcohol but not sucrose preference. Even after extended experience with sucrose sessions, JMV 2959 had no effect on sucrose preference or consumption. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate that GHS-R1A antagonism reduces alcohol preference, but suggest limitations on the role of ghrelin in the preference for and consumption of naturally rewarding substances. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Stevenson, Jennie; Buirkle, J M.; Buckley, L E.; Young, Katelyn; Albertini, K M.; and Bohidar, Amelia. “GHS-R1A Antagonism Reduces Alcohol but Not Sucrose Preference in Prairie Voles.” Physiology & Behavior 147, (2015) : 23-29.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Jennifer Silva – Snellman, Kaisa; Silva, Jennifer; Frederick, Carl B.; and Putnam, Robert D. “The Engagement Gap: Social Mobility and Extracurricular Participation among American Youth.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 657, no. 1 (2015) : 194-207.

Jennifer Silva, Assistant Professor of Sociology & Anthropology

Participation in extracurricular activities is associated with positive youth outcomes such as higher education attainment and greater future earnings. We present new analyses of four national longitudinal surveys of American high school students that reveal a sharp increase in the class gap in extracurricular involvement. Since the 1970s, upper-middle-class students have become increasingly active in school clubs and sport teams, while participation among working-class students has veered in the opposite direction. These growing gaps have emerged in the wake of rising income inequality, the introduction of pay to play programs, and increasing time and money investments by upper-middle-class parents in children’s development. These trends need to be taken into account in any new initiative to monitor mobility. They also present a challenge to the American ideal of equal opportunity insofar as participation in organized activities shapes patterns of social mobility.

Snellman, Kaisa; Silva, Jennifer; Frederick, Carl B.; and Putnam, Robert D. “The Engagement Gap: Social Mobility and Extracurricular Participation among American Youth.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 657, no. 1 (2015) : 194-207.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Andrea Halpern – Jakubowski, Kelly; Farrugia, Nicolas; Halpern, Andrea; Sankarpandi, Sathish K.; and Stewart, Lauren. “The Speed of Our Mental Soundtracks: Tracking the Tempo of Involuntary Musical Imagery in Everyday Life.” Memory & Cognition 43, no. 8 (2015) : 1229-1242.

Andrea Halpern, Professor of Psychology

The study of spontaneous and everyday cognitions is an area of rapidly growing interest. One of the most ubiquitous forms of spontaneous cognition is involuntary musical imagery (INMI), the involuntarily retrieved and repetitive mental replay of music. The present study introduced a novel method for capturing temporal features of INMI within a naturalistic setting. This method allowed for the investigation of two questions of interest to INMI researchers in a more objective way than previously possible, concerning (1) the precision of memory representations within INMI and (2) the interactions between INMI and concurrent affective state. Over the course of 4 days, INMI tempo was measured by asking participants to tap to the beat of their INMI with a wrist-worn accelerometer. Participants documented additional details regarding their INMI in a diary. Overall, the tempo of music within INMI was recalled from long-term memory in a highly veridical form, although with a regression to the mean for recalled tempo that parallels previous findings on voluntary musical imagery. A significant positive relationship was found between INMI tempo and subjective arousal, suggesting that INMI interacts with concurrent mood in a similar manner to perceived music. The results suggest several parallels between INMI and voluntary imagery, music perceptual processes, and other types of involuntary memories.

Jakubowski, Kelly; Farrugia, Nicolas; Halpern, Andrea; Sankarpandi, Sathish K.; and Stewart, Lauren. “The Speed of Our Mental Soundtracks: Tracking the Tempo of Involuntary Musical Imagery in Everyday Life.” Memory & Cognition 43, no. 8 (2015) : 1229-1242.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Jennie Stevenson – Fletcher, Kelsey L.; Whitley, Brittany N.; Treidel, Lisa A.; Thompson, David; Williams, Annie; Noguera, Jose C.; Stevenson, Jennie; and Haussmann, Mark F. “Voluntary Locomotor Activity Mitigates Oxidative Damage Associated with Isolation Stress in the Prairie Vole (Microtus ochrogaster).” Biology Letters 11, no. 7 (2015 ).

Jennie Stevenson, Assistant Professor of Psychology

Organismal performance directly depends on an individual’s ability to cope with a wide array of physiological challenges. For social animals, social isolation is a stressor that has been shown to increase oxidative stress. Another physiological challenge, routine locomotor activity, has been found to decrease oxidative stress levels. Because we currently do not have a good understanding of how diverse physiological systems like stress and locomotion interact to affect oxidative balance, we studied this interaction in the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). Voles were either pair housed or isolated and within the isolation group, voles either had access to a moving wheel or a stationary wheel. We found that chronic periodic isolation caused increased levels of oxidative stress. However, within the vole group that was able to run voluntarily, longer durations of locomotor activity were associated with less oxidative stress. Our work suggests that individuals who demonstrate increased locomotor activity may be better able to cope with the social stressor of isolation.

2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

Fletcher, Kelsey L.; Whitley, Brittany N.; Treidel, Lisa A.; Thompson, David; Williams, Annie; Noguera, Jose C.; Stevenson, Jennie; and Haussmann, Mark F. “Voluntary Locomotor Activity Mitigates Oxidative Damage Associated with Isolation Stress in the Prairie Vole (Microtus ochrogaster).” Biology Letters 11, no. 7 (2015 ).

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