Friday, February 26th, 2016

T. Joel Wade – Wade, T. Joel and Slemp, Jennifer. “How to Flirt Best: the Perceived Effectiveness of Flirtation Techniques.” Interpersona 9, no. 1 (2015) : 32-43.

T. Joel Wade, Professor of Psychology

Four studies were implemented in order to ascertain how men and women flirt with potential partners and which flirtatious actions are considered most effective. Study 1 (n = 40) and Study 2 (n = 60) sought to discover the actions that men and women, respectively, engage in to indicate romantic interest to a partner. Study 3 (n = 110) sought to determine which flirtatious acts from women are perceived as most effective by men. Women’s flirtations that suggest sexual access were expected to be rated as most effective. Study 4 (n = 222) sought to determine which flirtatious acts from men are perceived as most effective by women. Men’s flirtations that suggest emotional commitment and exclusivity were expected to be rated as most effective by women. The results were consistent with the hypotheses and are discussed in terms of prior research.

Wade, T. Joel and Slemp, Jennifer. “How to Flirt Best: the Perceived Effectiveness of Flirtation Techniques.” Interpersona 9, no. 1 (2015) : 32-43.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Peter G. Judge – Pearson, Brandon L.; Reeder, DeeAnn; and Judge, Peter G. “Crowding Increases Salivary Cortisol But Not Self-Directed Behavior in Captive Baboons.” International Journal of Primatology (2015).

Peter G. Judge, Professor of Psychology & Animal Behavior

Reduced space can lead to crowding in social animals. Crowding increases the risk of agonistic interactions that, in turn, may require additional physiological defensive coping mechanisms affecting health. To determine the stress induced from increased social density in a group of nineteen baboons living in an indoor/outdoor enclosure, saliva cortisol levels and rates of anxiety-related behavior were analyzed across two unique crowding episodes. Initially, mean salivary cortisol levels when animals were restricted to their indoor quarters were compared to those when they also had access to their larger outdoor enclosure. Then, mean cortisol levels were compared before, during, and after two distinct crowding periods of long and short duration. Crowding resulted in significantly elevated cortisol during crowding periods compared to non-crowded periods. Cortisol levels returned to baseline following two crowding episodes contrasting in their length and ambient climate conditions. These cortisol elevations indicate greater metabolic costs of maintaining homeostasis under social stress resulting from reduced space. Self-directed behavior, conversely, was not reliably elevated during crowding. Results suggest that the potential for negative social interactions, and/or the uncertainty associated with social threat can cause physiological stress responses detected by salivary cortisol. Self-directed behavioral measures of stress may constitute inadequate indicators of social stress in colony-housed monkeys or represent subjective emotional arousal unrelated to hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis activation.

Pearson, Brandon L.; Reeder, DeeAnn; and Judge, Peter G. “Crowding Increases Salivary Cortisol But Not Self-Directed Behavior in Captive Baboons.” International Journal of Primatology (2015).

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

T. Joel Wade – Gisler, Stefanie and Wade, T. Joel. “The Role of Intelligence in Mating: an Investigation of How Mating Intelligence Relates to Mate Selection and Mating-Relevant Constructs.” Human Ethology Bulletin 30, no. 4 (2015) : 8-22.

T. Joel Wade, Professor of Psychology

Mating intelligence is a fairly new construct with only limited empirical examination. Yet, previous research has found important implications for the construct’s role in mating behavior. The present study sought to expand the existing body of research on mating intelligence by investigating its relationship with self-esteem, self-perceived attractiveness, and mate selection. A sample of 195 participants (83 males and 112 females) completed a survey that incorporated measures of mating intelligence, self-esteem, and self-perceived attractiveness. Additionally, participants were asked to choose between an attractive and unattractive mate to take out on a date. Significant positive relationships between mating intelligence, self-esteem, and self-perceived attractiveness were found for both sexes. For males, mating intelligence predicted self-esteem over and above selfperceived attractiveness. Both males and females with higher mating intelligence were more likely to select the attractive mate to date. Self-perceived attractiveness predicted self-esteem for both sexes, but the relationship was stronger for males.

Gisler, Stefanie and Wade, T. Joel. “The Role of Intelligence in Mating: an Investigation of How Mating Intelligence Relates to Mate Selection and Mating-Relevant Constructs.” Human Ethology Bulletin 30, no. 4 (2015) : 8-22.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Jean Lamont – Lamont, Jean. “Trait Body Shame Predicts Health Outcomes in College Women: A Longitudinal Investigation.” Journal of Behavioral Medicine 38, no. 6 (2015) : 998-1008.

Jean Lamont, Visiting Assistant Professor of Psychology

Trait body shame impacts psychological health, but its influence on physical health heretofore has not been examined. While body shame may be expected to impact physical health through many mechanisms, this investigation tested whether trait body shame predicts physical health outcomes by promoting negative attitudes toward bodily processes, thereby diminishing health evaluation and ultimately impacting physical health. Correlational (Study 1, N=177) and longitudinal (Study 2, N=141) studies tested hypotheses that trait body shame would predict infections, self-rated health, and symptoms, and that body responsiveness and health evaluation would mediate these relationships. In Study 1, trait body shame predicted all three poor health outcomes, and body responsiveness and health evaluation mediated these relationships. Study 2 partially replicated these results while controlling for depression, smoking, and BMI, and longitudinal analyses supported the temporal precedence of trait body shame in the proposed model. Limitations and alternative pathways are discussed.

Lamont, Jean. “Trait Body Shame Predicts Health Outcomes in College Women: A Longitudinal Investigation.” Journal of Behavioral Medicine 38, no. 6 (2015) : 998-1008.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

T. Joel Wade – Wade, T. Joel; Weinstein, Erin; Dalal, Nina; and Salerno, Kelsey J. “I Can Dance: Further Investigations of the Effect of Dancing Ability on Mate Value.” Human Ethology Bulletin 30, no. 2 (2015) : 10-20.

T. Joel Wade, Professor of Psychology

The present research examined how being described as a dancer affects Black and White men and women’s assessed mate value in two studies. Study 1 examined evaluations of men by women and study 2 examined evaluations of women by men. Based on prior research examining how dancers are perceived and how body movements affect social perceiver’s evaluations of others, men and women described as dancers were expected to receive better ratings. Additionally, race of the individual being assessed was not expected to have any impact on mate value ratings. The results were consistent with the hypotheses. Men and women described as dancers received higher ratings than men and women described as non-dancers. Static manipulations of dancing ability also lead to evolutionary theory based evaluations of men and women.

Wade, T. Joel; Weinstein, Erin; Dalal, Nina; and Salerno, Kelsey J. “I Can Dance: Further Investigations of the Effect of Dancing Ability on Mate Value.” Human Ethology Bulletin 30, no. 2 (2015) : 10-20.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Aaron D. Mitchel – Lusk, Laina G. and Mitchel, Aaron D. “Differential Gaze Patterns on Eyes and Mouth During Audiovisual Speech Segmentation.” Frontiers in Psychology 7, (2016) : 52-52.

Aaron D. Mitchel, Assistant Professor of Psychology

Speech is inextricably multisensory: both auditory and visual components provide critical information for all aspects of speech processing, including speech segmentation, the visual components of which have been the target of a growing number of studies. In particular, a recent study (Mitchel and Weiss, 2014) established that adults can utilize facial cues (i.e., visual prosody) to identify word boundaries in fluent speech. The current study expanded upon these results, using an eye tracker to identify highly attended facial features of the audiovisual display used in Mitchel and Weiss (2014). Subjects spent the most time watching the eyes and mouth. A significant trend in gaze durations was found with the longest gaze duration on the mouth, followed by the eyes and then the nose. In addition, eye gaze patterns changed across familiarization as subjects learned the word boundaries, showing decreased attention to the mouth in later blocks while attention on other facial features remained consistent. These findings highlight the importance of the visual component of speech processing and suggest that the mouth may play a critical role in visual speech segmentation.

Lusk, Laina G. and Mitchel, Aaron D. “Differential Gaze Patterns on Eyes and Mouth During Audiovisual Speech Segmentation.” Frontiers in Psychology 7, (2016) : 52-52.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

John David Penniman – Penniman, John David. “‘The Health-Giving Cup’: Cyprian’s Ep. 63 and the Medicinal Power of Eucharistic Wine.” Journal of Early Christian Studies 23, no. 2 (2015) : 189-211.

John David Penniman, Assistant Professor of Religious Studies

Cyprian’s Epistle 63 represents the earliest extant account of the proper meaning and administration of the eucharistic cup. Against a group of Christians who were taking only water, Cyprian argues that wine is necessary for the ritual to be effective. While there has been much discussion surrounding the biblical references marshaled by Cyprian to prove his point, this article explores the extent to which those references are inflected through lexical and conceptual categories relating to the medical usage of wine. Wine figured prominently in literature on illness, health, and healing that proliferated during the Roman Empire. This article locates Cyprian within that broader dynamic, and argues that his emphasis on the health-giving effects of the eucharistic cup in Ep. 63 reflects similar descriptions of the medicinal power of wine found in manuals of Roman medicine and other folklore traditions.

Penniman, John David. “‘The Health-Giving Cup’: Cyprian’s Ep. 63 and the Medicinal Power of Eucharistic Wine.” Journal of Early Christian Studies 23, no. 2 (2015) : 189-211.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Aaron D. Mitchel – Evans, David W.; Lazar, Steven M.; Boomer, K B.; Mitchel, Aaron; Michael, Andrew M.; and Moore, Gregory J. “Social Cognition and Brain Morphology: Implications for Developmental Brain Dysfunction.” Brain Imaging and Behavior 9, no. 2 (2015) : 264-274.

Aaron D. Mitchel, Assistant Professor of Psychology

The social-cognitive deficits associated with several neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders have been linked to structural and functional brain anomalies. Given the recent appreciation for quantitative approaches to behavior, in this study we examined the brain-behavior links in social cognition in healthy young adults from a quantitative approach. Twenty-two participants were administered quantitative measures of social cognition, including the social responsiveness scale (SRS), the empathizing questionnaire (EQ) and the systemizing questionnaire (SQ). Participants underwent a structural, 3-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) procedure that yielded both volumetric (voxel count) and asymmetry indices. Model fitting with backward elimination revealed that a combination of cortical, limbic and striatal regions accounted for significant variance in social behavior and cognitive styles that are typically associated with neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. Specifically, as caudate and amygdala volumes deviate from the typical R > L asymmetry, and cortical gray matter becomes more R > L asymmetrical, overall SRS and Emotion Recognition scores increase. Social Avoidance was explained by a combination of cortical gray matter, pallidum (rightward asymmetry) and caudate (deviation from rightward asymmetry). Rightward asymmetry of the pallidum was the sole predictor of Interpersonal Relationships and Repetitive Mannerisms. Increased D-scores on the EQ-SQ, an indication of greater systemizing relative to empathizing, was also explained by deviation from the typical R > L asymmetry of the caudate.

Evans, David W.; Lazar, Steven M.; Boomer, K B.; Mitchel, Aaron; Michael, Andrew M.; and Moore, Gregory J. “Social Cognition and Brain Morphology: Implications for Developmental Brain Dysfunction.” Brain Imaging and Behavior 9, no. 2 (2015) : 264-274.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

John David Penniman – Penniman, John David. “Fed to Perfection: Mother’s Milk, Roman Family Values, and the Transformation of the Soul in Gregory of Nyssa.” Church History 84, no. 3 (2015) : 495-530.

John David Penniman, Assistant Professor of Religious Studies

Prompted by Michel Foucault’s observation that “salvation is first of all essentially subsistence,” this essay explores Gregory of Nyssa’s discussion of Christian spiritual formation as a kind of salvific and transformative feeding of infants. This article argues that the prominent role of nourishment-and specifically breast milk-in Gregory’s theory of progressive Christian perfection reflects broader Roman era family values concerning the power of breast feeding in the proper development of a child. With particular attention to Gregory’s Encomium for Saint Basil, the Life of Moses, and his Homilies on the Song of Songs, this article demonstrates that references to the power of nourishment are no ” mere metaphor” but rather represent an intensification of the prominent belief in antiquity that human nature can be altered according to the food a person eats. As such, Gregory employs the female body and its putatively maternal function as a regulatory symbol for Christian identity-formation. Mother’s milk is thus offered as a mechanism for preserving and transmitting the ideal form of the Christian community that Gregory found embodied in the ambiguously gendered characters of the Song of Songs. True Christians, in Gregory’s account, are identified by the milk on which they were fed and, in turn, the nurturing care they offer to others.

Penniman, John David. “Fed to Perfection: Mother’s Milk, Roman Family Values, and the Transformation of the Soul in Gregory of Nyssa.” Church History 84, no. 3 (2015) : 495-530.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Katharina Vollmayr-Lee – Helfferich, J.; Vollmayr-Lee, Katharina; Ziebert, F.; Meyer, H.; and Baschnagel, J. “Glass Formers Display Universal Non-Equilibrium Dynamics on the Level of Single-Particle Jumps.” EPL 109, no. 3 (2015) : 36004.

Katharina Vollmayr-Lee, Professor of Physics

Glasses are inherently out-of-equilibrium systems evolving slowly toward their equilibrium state in a process called physical aging. During aging, dynamic observables depend on the history of the system, hampering comparative studies of dynamics in different glass formers. Here, we demonstrate how glass formers can be directly compared on the level of single-particle jumps, i. e. the structural relaxation events underlying the a-process. Describing the dynamics in terms of a continuous-time random walk, an analytic prediction for the jump rate is derived. The result is subsequently compared to molecular-dynamics simulations of amorphous silica and a polymer melt as two generic representatives of strong and fragile glass formers, and good agreement is found. Copyright (C) EPLA, 2015

Helfferich, J.; Vollmayr-Lee, Katharina; Ziebert, F.; Meyer, H.; and Baschnagel, J. “Glass Formers Display Universal Non-Equilibrium Dynamics on the Level of Single-Particle Jumps.” EPL 109, no. 3 (2015) : 36004.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Andrea Halpern – Halpern, Andrea; Golden, Hannah L.; Magdalinou, Nadia; Witoonpanich, Pirada; and Warren, Jason D. “Musical Tasks Targeting Preserved and Impaired Functions in Two Dementias.” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1337, no. 1 (2015) : 241-248.

Andrea Halpern, Professor of Psychology

Studies of musical abilities in dementia have for the most part been rather general assessments of abilities, for instance, assessing retention of music learned premorbidly. Here, we studied patients with dementias with contrasting cognitive profiles to explore specific aspects of music cognition under challenge. Patients suffered from Alzheimer’s disease (AD), in which a primary impairment is in forming new declarative memories, or Lewy body disease (PD/LBD), a type of parkinsonism in which executive impairments are prominent. In the AD patients, we examined musical imagery. Behavioral and neural evidence confirms involvement of perceptual networks in imagery, and these are relatively spared in early stages of the illness. Thus, we expected patients to have relatively intact imagery in a mental pitch comparison task. For the LBD patients, we tested whether executive dysfunction would extend to music. We probed inhibitory skills by asking for a speeded pitch or timbre judgment when the irrelevant dimension was held constant or also changed. Preliminary results show that AD patients score similarly to controls in the imagery tasks, but PD/LBD patients are impaired relative to controls in suppressing some irrelevant musical dimensions, particularly when the required judgment varies from trial to trial.

2014 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of The New York Academy of Sciences.

Halpern, Andrea; Golden, Hannah L.; Magdalinou, Nadia; Witoonpanich, Pirada; and Warren, Jason D. “Musical Tasks Targeting Preserved and Impaired Functions in Two Dementias.” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1337, no. 1 (2015) : 241-248.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Matthew H. Slater – Slater, Matthew H. “Natural Kindness.” British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 66, no. 2 (2015) : 375-411.

Matthew H. Slater, Associate Professor of Philosophy

Philosophers have long been interested in a series of interrelated questions about natural kinds. What are they? What role do they play in science and metaphysics? How do they contribute to our epistemic projects? What categories count as natural kinds? And so on. Owing, perhaps, to different starting points and emphases, we now have at hand a variety of conceptions of natural kinds-some apparently better suited than others to accommodate a particular sort of inquiry. Even if coherent, this situation isn’t ideal. My goal in this article is to begin to articulate a more general account of ‘natural kind phenomena’. While I do not claim that this account should satisfy everyone-it is built around a certain conception of the epistemic role of kinds and has an obvious pragmatic flavour-I believe that it has the resources to go further than extant alternatives, in particular the homeostatic property cluster view of kinds.

Slater, Matthew H. “Natural Kindness.” British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 66, no. 2 (2015) : 375-411.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

John A. Doces – Magee, Christopher S. and Doces, John A. “Reconsidering Regime Type and Growth: Lies, Dictatorships, and Statistics.” International Studies Quarterly 59, no. 2 (2015) : 223-237.

John A. Doces, Associate Professor of Political Science

Some recent papers have concluded that authoritarian regimes have faster economic growth than democracies. These supposed growth benefits of autocracies are estimated using data sets in which growth rates rely heavily on data reported by each government. Governments have incentives to exaggerate their economic growth figures, however, and authoritarian regimes may have fewer limitations than democracies on their ability to do so. This paper argues that growth data submitted to international agencies are overstated by authoritarian regimes compared to democracies. If true, it calls into question the estimated relationship between government type and economic growth found in the literature. To measure the degree to which each government’s official growth statistics are overstated, the economic growth rates reported in the World Bank’s World Development Indicators are compared to a new measure of economic growth based on satellite imaging of nighttime lights. This comparison reveals whether or not dictators exaggerate their true growth rates and by how much. Annual GDP growth rates are estimated to be overstated by 0.5-1.5 percentage points in the statistics that dictatorships report to the World Bank.

Magee, Christopher S. and Doces, John A. “Reconsidering Regime Type and Growth: Lies, Dictatorships, and Statistics.” International Studies Quarterly 59, no. 2 (2015) : 223-237.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Andrea Halpern – Schaal, Nora K.; Javadi, Amir-Homayoun; Halpern, Andrea; Pollok, Bettina; and Banissy, Michael J. “Right Parietal Cortex Mediates Recognition Memory for Melodies.” European Journal of Neuroscience 42, no. 1 (2015) : 1660-1666.

Andrea Halpern, Professor of Psychology

Functional brain imaging studies have highlighted the significance of right-lateralized temporal, frontal and parietal brain areas for memory for melodies. The present study investigated the involvement of bilateral posterior parietal cortices (PPCs) for the recognition memory of melodies using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Participants performed a recognition task before and after tDCS. The task included an encoding phase (12 melodies), a retention period, as well as a recognition phase (24 melodies). Experiment 1 revealed that anodal tDCS over the right PPC led to a deterioration of overall memory performance compared with sham. Experiment 2 confirmed the results of Experiment 1 and further showed that anodal tDCS over the left PPC did not show a modulatory effect on memory task performance, indicating a right lateralization for musical memory. Furthermore, both experiments revealed that the decline in memory for melodies can be traced back to an interference of anodal stimulation on the recollection process (remember judgements) rather than to familiarity judgements. Taken together, this study revealed a causal involvement of the right PPC for memory for melodies and demonstrated a key role for this brain region in the recollection process of the memory task.

Schaal, Nora K.; Javadi, Amir-Homayoun; Halpern, Andrea; Pollok, Bettina; and Banissy, Michael J. “Right Parietal Cortex Mediates Recognition Memory for Melodies.” European Journal of Neuroscience 42, no. 1 (2015) : 1660-1666.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Katelyn Allers – Garcia, E. V.; Dupuy, Trent J.; Allers, Katelyn N.; Liu, Michael C.; and Deacon, Niall R. “On the Binary Frequency of the Lowest Mass Members of the Pleiades with Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3.” Astrophysical Journal 804, no. 1 (2015) : 65.

Katelyn Allers, Associate Professor of Physics & Astronomy

We present the results of a Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) imaging survey of 11 of the lowest mass brown dwarfs in the Pleiades known (25-40M(Jup)). These objects represent the predecessors to T dwarfs in the field. Using a semi-empirical binary point-spread function (PSF)-fitting technique, we are able to probe to 0 ”.03 (0.75 pixel), better than 2x the WFC3/UVIS diffraction limit. We did not find any companions to our targets. From extensive testing of our PSF-fitting method on simulated binaries, we compute detection limits which rule out companions to our targets with mass ratios of greater than or similar to 0.7 and separations greater than or similar to 4 AU. Thus, our survey is the first to attain the high angular resolution needed to resolve brown dwarf binaries in the Pleiades at separations that are most common in the field population. We constrain the binary frequency over this range of separation and mass ratio of 25-40M(Jup) Pleiades brown dwarfs to be < 11% for 1 sigma (< 26% at 2s). This binary frequency is consistent with both younger and older brown dwarfs in this mass range.

Garcia, E. V.; Dupuy, Trent J.; Allers, Katelyn N.; Liu, Michael C.; and Deacon, Niall R. “On the Binary Frequency of the Lowest Mass Members of the Pleiades with Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3.” Astrophysical Journal 804, no. 1 (2015) : 65.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

John A. Doces – Doces, John A. and Magee, Christopher S. “Trade and Democracy: A Factor-Based Approach.” International Interactions 41, no. 2 (2015) : 407-425.

John A. Doces, Associate Professor of Political Science

We study the relationship between trade openness and democracy using a data set with capital-labor ratios, trade flows, and regime type for 142 countries between 1960 and 2007. We are among the first to test a prediction that emerges from the model of Acemoglu and Robinson (2006): Relative factor endowments determine whether trade promotes democracy or not. The statistical results from two-stage least squares estimation indicate that trade is positively associated with democracy among labor-abundant countries but that trade has a negative effect on democracy in capital-abundant countries. The results are not robust, however, and thus we conclude that the evidence in support of their argument is relatively weak.

Doces, John A. and Magee, Christopher S. “Trade and Democracy: A Factor-Based Approach.” International Interactions 41, no. 2 (2015) : 407-425.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Katelyn Allers – Petigura, Erik A.; Schlieder, Joshua E.; Crossfield, Ian J.M.; Howard, Andrew W.; Deck, Katherine M.; Ciardi, David R.; Sinukoff, Evan; Allers, Katelyn N.; Best, William M.J.; Liu, Michael C.; Beichman, Charles A.; Isaacson, Howard; Hansen, Brad M.S.; and Lepine, Sebastien. “Two Transiting Earth-Size Planets Near Resonance Orbiting a Nearby Cool Star.” Astrophysical Journal 811, no. 2 (2015) : 102.

Katelyn Allers, Associate Professor of Physics & Astronomy

Discoveries from the prime Kepler mission demonstrated that small planets (<3R(circle plus)) are common outcomes of planet formation. While Kepler detected many such planets, all but a handful orbit faint, distant stars and are not amenable to precise follow up measurements. Here, we report the discovery of two small planets transiting K2-21, a bright (K = 9.4) M0 dwarf located 65 +/- 6 pc from Earth. We detected the transiting planets in photometry collected during Campaign 3 of NASA's K2 mission. Analysis of transit light curves reveals that the planets have small radii compared to their host star, R-P/R-star = 2.60 +/- 0.14% and 3.15 +/- 0.20%, respectively. We obtained follow up NIR spectroscopy of K2-21 to constrain host star properties, which imply planet sizes of 1.59 +/- 0.43 R-circle plus and 1.92 +/- 0.53 R-circle plus, respectively, straddling the boundary between high-density, rocky planets and low-density planets with thick gaseous envelopes. The planets have orbital periods of 9.32414 days and 15.50120 days, respectively, and a period ratio P-c/P-b = 1.6624, very near to the 5: 3 mean motion resonance, which may be a record of the system's formation history. Transit timing variations due to gravitational interactions between the planets may be detectable using ground-based telescopes. Finally, this system offers a convenient laboratory for studying the bulk composition and atmospheric properties of small planets with low equilibrium temperatures.

Petigura, Erik A.; Schlieder, Joshua E.; Crossfield, Ian J.M.; Howard, Andrew W.; Deck, Katherine M.; Ciardi, David R.; Sinukoff, Evan; Allers, Katelyn N.; Best, William M.J.; Liu, Michael C.; Beichman, Charles A.; Isaacson, Howard; Hansen, Brad M.S.; and Lepine, Sebastien. “Two Transiting Earth-Size Planets Near Resonance Orbiting a Nearby Cool Star.” Astrophysical Journal 811, no. 2 (2015) : 102.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Michael James – James, Michael. “Constituency Deliberation.” Political Research Quarterly 68, no. 3 (2015) : 552-563.

Michael James, Associate Professor of Political Science

How do we distinguish legitimate, democratic representation from illegitimate, undemocratic elite rule? Empirical scholars of representation typically rely on the “bedrock norm” that democratic representatives must respond to the antecedent interests of their constituents, but empirical studies of public opinion suggest that constituents’ interests emerge following engagement with their representatives. The result is the “constituency paradox”: representatives are supposed to respond to constituent interests, interests that representatives themselves help to create. Deliberative democratic theories seek to circumvent this paradox by distinguishing between representatives who communicatively educate their constituents from those who strategically manipulate them, but it is empirically impossible to distinguish legitimate education from illegitimate manipulation. Nondeliberative criteria requiring elite competition and popular contestation also fail to ground legitimate democratic representation. In response, I develop a model of constituency deliberation that does not rely on the bedrock norm, accepts strategic as well as communicative action, acknowledges the asymmetric but reciprocal relationship between constituents and representatives, and uses a systemic approach to assess democratic representation. This deliberative model leads to institutional reforms that avoid the bedrock norm and seek to mitigate representative manipulation by creating space for constituents to respond to representatives’ claims to represent their interests.

James, Michael. “Constituency Deliberation.” Political Research Quarterly 68, no. 3 (2015) : 552-563.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Jiajia Dong – Sahoo, Mamata; Dong, Jiajia; and Klumpp, Stefan. “Dynamic Blockage in an Exclusion Process.”Journal of Physics A–Mathematical and Theoretical 48, no. 1 (2015) : 015007.

Jiajia Dong, Associate Professor of Physics & Astronomy

We study an asymmetric exclusion model with one dynamic roadblock particle. The roadblock particle is allowed to move diffusively as well as by longrange jumps mimicking an unbinding/rebinding process. Using Monte Carlo simulations and analytical arguments, the two types of roadblock moves are considered both separately and in combination. Several interesting dynamic phenomena are observed. The long-range jumps of the roadblock lead to a current that depends on the number of particles in the system rather than on the particle density, and thus scales linearly with the system size (up to a critical size). This behavior can be explained by a collective motion of all particles following the roadblock. The diffusive roadblock movements on the other hand lead to a ratcheting motion with the active (driven) particles pushing the roadblock forward.

Sahoo, Mamata; Dong, Jiajia; and Klumpp, Stefan. “Dynamic Blockage in an Exclusion Process.”Journal of Physics A–Mathematical and Theoretical 48, no. 1 (2015) : 015007.

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