Friday, February 26th, 2016

Jennie Stevenson – Stevenson, Jennie; Buirkle, J M.; Buckley, L E.; Young, Katelyn; Albertini, K M.; and Bohidar, Amelia. “GHS-R1A Antagonism Reduces Alcohol but Not Sucrose Preference in Prairie Voles.” Physiology & Behavior 147, (2015) : 23-29.

Jennie Stevenson, Assistant Professor of Psychology

Rationale: Ghrelin has been shown to mediate food and drug reward in rats and mice, and the rewarding properties of sweet foods and alcohol are known to contribute to overconsumption of these substances. Objective: To investigate the effects of GHS-R1A antagonism in a novel animal model of high alcohol consumption, the prairie vole, and to characterize the role of ghrelin in limited access consumption of a drug (alcohol) and non-drug (sucrose) reward. Methods: Female prairie voles were given four 2-h two-bottle drinking sessions, occurring every other day. During drinking sessions, animals had access to 20% ethanol vs water or 10% sucrose vs water. Pre-treatment with the GHS-R1A antagonist JMV 2959 (i.p.; 0.0, 9.0 mg/kg Experiments 1 and 2;0.0, 9.0, 12.0 mg/kg Experiments 3 and 4.) occurred 30-min before the fourth session. To determine if the amount of exposure to sucrose sessions affected the efficacy of JMV 2959, in Experiment 5 animals were given 16 daily 2-hr drinking sessions with 10% sucrose vs water. JMV 2959 treatment (0.0 or 9.0 mg/kg) occurred 30-min prior to the 16th session. Results: JMV 2959 reduced alcohol but not sucrose preference. Even after extended experience with sucrose sessions, JMV 2959 had no effect on sucrose preference or consumption. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate that GHS-R1A antagonism reduces alcohol preference, but suggest limitations on the role of ghrelin in the preference for and consumption of naturally rewarding substances. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Stevenson, Jennie; Buirkle, J M.; Buckley, L E.; Young, Katelyn; Albertini, K M.; and Bohidar, Amelia. “GHS-R1A Antagonism Reduces Alcohol but Not Sucrose Preference in Prairie Voles.” Physiology & Behavior 147, (2015) : 23-29.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Jennifer Silva – Snellman, Kaisa; Silva, Jennifer; Frederick, Carl B.; and Putnam, Robert D. “The Engagement Gap: Social Mobility and Extracurricular Participation among American Youth.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 657, no. 1 (2015) : 194-207.

Jennifer Silva, Assistant Professor of Sociology & Anthropology

Participation in extracurricular activities is associated with positive youth outcomes such as higher education attainment and greater future earnings. We present new analyses of four national longitudinal surveys of American high school students that reveal a sharp increase in the class gap in extracurricular involvement. Since the 1970s, upper-middle-class students have become increasingly active in school clubs and sport teams, while participation among working-class students has veered in the opposite direction. These growing gaps have emerged in the wake of rising income inequality, the introduction of pay to play programs, and increasing time and money investments by upper-middle-class parents in children’s development. These trends need to be taken into account in any new initiative to monitor mobility. They also present a challenge to the American ideal of equal opportunity insofar as participation in organized activities shapes patterns of social mobility.

Snellman, Kaisa; Silva, Jennifer; Frederick, Carl B.; and Putnam, Robert D. “The Engagement Gap: Social Mobility and Extracurricular Participation among American Youth.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 657, no. 1 (2015) : 194-207.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Andrea Halpern – Jakubowski, Kelly; Farrugia, Nicolas; Halpern, Andrea; Sankarpandi, Sathish K.; and Stewart, Lauren. “The Speed of Our Mental Soundtracks: Tracking the Tempo of Involuntary Musical Imagery in Everyday Life.” Memory & Cognition 43, no. 8 (2015) : 1229-1242.

Andrea Halpern, Professor of Psychology

The study of spontaneous and everyday cognitions is an area of rapidly growing interest. One of the most ubiquitous forms of spontaneous cognition is involuntary musical imagery (INMI), the involuntarily retrieved and repetitive mental replay of music. The present study introduced a novel method for capturing temporal features of INMI within a naturalistic setting. This method allowed for the investigation of two questions of interest to INMI researchers in a more objective way than previously possible, concerning (1) the precision of memory representations within INMI and (2) the interactions between INMI and concurrent affective state. Over the course of 4 days, INMI tempo was measured by asking participants to tap to the beat of their INMI with a wrist-worn accelerometer. Participants documented additional details regarding their INMI in a diary. Overall, the tempo of music within INMI was recalled from long-term memory in a highly veridical form, although with a regression to the mean for recalled tempo that parallels previous findings on voluntary musical imagery. A significant positive relationship was found between INMI tempo and subjective arousal, suggesting that INMI interacts with concurrent mood in a similar manner to perceived music. The results suggest several parallels between INMI and voluntary imagery, music perceptual processes, and other types of involuntary memories.

Jakubowski, Kelly; Farrugia, Nicolas; Halpern, Andrea; Sankarpandi, Sathish K.; and Stewart, Lauren. “The Speed of Our Mental Soundtracks: Tracking the Tempo of Involuntary Musical Imagery in Everyday Life.” Memory & Cognition 43, no. 8 (2015) : 1229-1242.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Jennie Stevenson – Fletcher, Kelsey L.; Whitley, Brittany N.; Treidel, Lisa A.; Thompson, David; Williams, Annie; Noguera, Jose C.; Stevenson, Jennie; and Haussmann, Mark F. “Voluntary Locomotor Activity Mitigates Oxidative Damage Associated with Isolation Stress in the Prairie Vole (Microtus ochrogaster).” Biology Letters 11, no. 7 (2015 ).

Jennie Stevenson, Assistant Professor of Psychology

Organismal performance directly depends on an individual’s ability to cope with a wide array of physiological challenges. For social animals, social isolation is a stressor that has been shown to increase oxidative stress. Another physiological challenge, routine locomotor activity, has been found to decrease oxidative stress levels. Because we currently do not have a good understanding of how diverse physiological systems like stress and locomotion interact to affect oxidative balance, we studied this interaction in the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). Voles were either pair housed or isolated and within the isolation group, voles either had access to a moving wheel or a stationary wheel. We found that chronic periodic isolation caused increased levels of oxidative stress. However, within the vole group that was able to run voluntarily, longer durations of locomotor activity were associated with less oxidative stress. Our work suggests that individuals who demonstrate increased locomotor activity may be better able to cope with the social stressor of isolation.

2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

Fletcher, Kelsey L.; Whitley, Brittany N.; Treidel, Lisa A.; Thompson, David; Williams, Annie; Noguera, Jose C.; Stevenson, Jennie; and Haussmann, Mark F. “Voluntary Locomotor Activity Mitigates Oxidative Damage Associated with Isolation Stress in the Prairie Vole (Microtus ochrogaster).” Biology Letters 11, no. 7 (2015 ).

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Allen Tran – Tran, Allen L. “Rich Sentiments and the Cultural Politics of Emotion in Postreform Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.” American Anthropologist 117, no. 3 (2015) : 480-492.

Allen Tran, Assistant Professor of Sociology & Anthropology

Linking socioeconomic and personal transformations, recent scholarship on neoliberalism in East and Southeast Asia has examined the role of various emotional experiences in reconfiguring selfhood toward values of personal responsibility and self-care. However, studies rarely focus on how such experiences come to be understood as specifically emotional themselves. In this article, I examine the growing use of emotion (cam xuc)as a conceptual category to define the self and everyday life in a psychologistic idiom among middle-class residents of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. While more established discourses of sentiment (tinh cam) define selfhood in relation to notions of obligation and care, the emerging model of emotion emphasizes individuated self-knowledge. However, instead of replacing sentiment, newer understandings of emotion have developed alongside and in relation to sentiment. In categorizing various feelings as explicitly “emotional” in nature, people participate in a self-fashioning project that cultivates an emotionally aware and expressive self that is informed by neoliberal sensibilities yet does not supplant socialist or Confucian models of selfhood. I argue that emotions are not only central to the subjective experience of the transition to a market-oriented economy but also that emotion as a category itself is a medium through which economic transformations reorganize selfhood more generally. [emotion, self, neoliberalism, ethnopsychology, Vietnam]

Tran, Allen L. “Rich Sentiments and the Cultural Politics of Emotion in Postreform Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.” American Anthropologist 117, no. 3 (2015) : 480-492.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Peter G. Judge – Marsh, Heidi L.; Vining, Alexander Q.; Levendoski, Emma K.; and Judge, Peter G. “Inference by Exclusion in Lion-Tailed Macaques (Macaca silenus), a Hamadryas Baboon (Papio hamadryas), Capuchins (Sapajus apella), and Squirrel Monkeys (Saimiri sciureus).” Journal of Comparative Psychology 129, no. 3 (2015) : 256-267.

Peter G. Judge, Professor of Psychology & Animal Behavior

Previous research has suggested that several primate species may be capable of reasoning by exclusion based on the finding that they can locate a hidden object when given information about where the object is not. The present research replicated and extended the literature by testing 2 Old World monkey species, lion-tailed macaques (Macaca silenus) and a hamadryas baboon (Papio hamadryas), and 2 New World species, capuchin monkeys (Sapajus apella) and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus). The New World monkeys were tested on the traditional 2-way object choice task, and all 4 species were also tested on a more complex 3-way object choice task. In addition, the squirrel monkeys were tested on a 2-way object choice task with auditory information. The results showed that, whereas the Old World species were able to infer by exclusion on the 3-object task, some of the capuchin monkeys had difficulty on each of the 2- and 3-cup tasks. All but 1 of the squirrel monkeys failed to infer successfully, and their strategies appeared to differ between the visual and auditory versions of the task. Taken together, this research suggests that the ability to succeed on this inference task may be present throughout Old World monkey species, but is fragile in the New World species tested thus far.

Marsh, Heidi L.; Vining, Alexander Q.; Levendoski, Emma K.; and Judge, Peter G. “Inference by Exclusion in Lion-Tailed Macaques (Macaca silenus), a Hamadryas Baboon (Papio hamadryas), Capuchins (Sapajus apella), and Squirrel Monkeys (Saimiri sciureus).” Journal of Comparative Psychology 129, no. 3 (2015) : 256-267.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Ruth Tincoff – Seidl, Amanda; Tincoff, Ruth; Baker, Christopher; and Cristia, Alejandrina. “Why the Body Comes First: Effects of Experimenter Touch on Infants’ Word Finding.” Developmental Science 18, no. 1 (2015) : 155-164.

Ruth Tincoff, Assistant Professor of Psychology

The lexicon of 6-month-olds is comprised of names and body part words. Unlike names, body part words do not often occur in isolation in the input. This presents a puzzle: How have infants been able to pull out these words from the continuous stream of speech at such a young age? We hypothesize that caregivers’ interactions directed at and on the infant’s body may be at the root of their early acquisition of body part words. An artificial language segmentation study shows that experimenter-provided synchronous tactile cues help 4-month-olds to find words in continuous speech. A follow-up study suggests that this facilitation cannot be reduced to the highly social situation in which the directed interaction occurs. Taken together, these studies suggest that direct caregiver-infant interaction, exemplified in this study by touch cues, may play a key role in infants’ ability to find word boundaries, and suggests that early vocabulary items may consist of words often linked with caregiver touches. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at http://youtu.be/NfCj5ipatyE

Seidl, Amanda; Tincoff, Ruth; Baker, Christopher; and Cristia, Alejandrina. “Why the Body Comes First: Effects of Experimenter Touch on Infants’ Word Finding.” Developmental Science 18, no. 1 (2015) : 155-164.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Peter G. Judge – Zander, Stacey L. and Judge, Peter G. “Brown Capuchin Monkeys (Sapajus apella) Plan Their Movements on a Grasping Task.” Journal of Comparative Psychology 129, no. 2 (2015) : 181-188.

Peter G. Judge, Professor of Psychology & Animal Behavior

Motor planning is a relatively complex cognitive skill in which an actor modifies a behavior to anticipate the future consequences of the action. Studying motor planning in nonhuman primates may provide a better understanding of the roots of human planning abilities. In this study we presented capuchin monkeys (Sapajus apella) with a horizontal dowel baited on either the left or right end. A radial grasp on the dowel with the thumb facing toward the baited end would be the most efficient grip selection when bringing the dowel to one’s mouth and indicate motor planning. Ten of the 12 monkeys tested spontaneously used a radial grasp significantly more often than expected by chance. Results demonstrate a more ubiquitous expression of motor planning abilities than previously seen in capuchin monkeys. Adaptation of this method of testing may be useful in evaluating motor planning capacity in other primates.

Zander, Stacey L. and Judge, Peter G. “Brown Capuchin Monkeys (Sapajus apella) Plan Their Movements on a Grasping Task.” Journal of Comparative Psychology 129, no. 2 (2015) : 181-188.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

T. Joel Wade – Wade, T. Joel and Slemp, Jennifer. “How to Flirt Best: the Perceived Effectiveness of Flirtation Techniques.” Interpersona 9, no. 1 (2015) : 32-43.

T. Joel Wade, Professor of Psychology

Four studies were implemented in order to ascertain how men and women flirt with potential partners and which flirtatious actions are considered most effective. Study 1 (n = 40) and Study 2 (n = 60) sought to discover the actions that men and women, respectively, engage in to indicate romantic interest to a partner. Study 3 (n = 110) sought to determine which flirtatious acts from women are perceived as most effective by men. Women’s flirtations that suggest sexual access were expected to be rated as most effective. Study 4 (n = 222) sought to determine which flirtatious acts from men are perceived as most effective by women. Men’s flirtations that suggest emotional commitment and exclusivity were expected to be rated as most effective by women. The results were consistent with the hypotheses and are discussed in terms of prior research.

Wade, T. Joel and Slemp, Jennifer. “How to Flirt Best: the Perceived Effectiveness of Flirtation Techniques.” Interpersona 9, no. 1 (2015) : 32-43.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Thomas H. Solomon – Gowen, Savannah and Solomon, Thomas H. “Experimental Studies of Coherent Structures in an Advection-Reaction-Diffusion System.” Chaos (Woodbury, N.Y.) 25, no. 8 (2015) : 087403.

Thomas H. Solomon, Professor of Physics

We present experimental studies of reaction front propagation in a single vortex flow with an imposed external wind. The fronts are produced by the excitable, ferroin-catalyzed Belousov-Zhabotinsky chemical reaction. The flow is generated using an electromagnetic forcing technique: an almost-radial electrical current interacts with a magnetic field from a magnet below the fluid layer to produce the vortex. The magnet is mounted on crossed translation stages allowing for movement of the vortex through the flow. Reaction fronts triggered in or in front of the moving vortex form persistent structures that are seen experimentally for time-independent (constant motion), time-periodic, and time-aperiodic flows. These results are examined with the use of burning invariant manifolds that act as one-way barriers to front motion in the flows. We also explore the usefulness of finite-time Lyapunov exponent fields as an instrument for analyzing front propagation behavior in a fluid flow.

Gowen, Savannah and Solomon, Thomas H. “Experimental Studies of Coherent Structures in an Advection-Reaction-Diffusion System.” Chaos (Woodbury, N.Y.) 25, no. 8 (2015) : 087403.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

William F. Flack, Jr. – Flack, William F. Jr.; Kimble, Matthew O.; Campbell, Brooke E.; Hopper, Allyson B.; Peterca, Oana; and Heller, Emily J. “Sexual Assault Victimization Among Female Undergraduates During Study Abroad: A Single Campus Survey Study.” Journal of Interpersonal Violence 30, no. 20 (2015) : 3453-3466.

William F. Flack, Jr., Associate Professor of Psychology

Almost all research on sexual assault victimization among undergraduate university students pertains to incidents that occur on domestic college and university campuses. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of sexual assault victimization and related factors among undergraduates in the context of study-abroad programs. Two hundred eight female students (52% response rate) from a small university in the northeastern United States who had recently studied abroad responded to an online survey containing measures of sexual assault, posttraumatic stress responses (PSR), and alcohol consumption. Almost 19% of the respondents indicated one or more types of sexual assault victimization. Approximately 17% reported non-consensual sexual touching, 7% attempted rape, 4% rape, with 9% reporting attempted rape or rape. As in domestic studies, victimization in this sample was related positively to alcohol consumption and PSR. Use of force was the most frequently reported perpetrator tactic. In sum, the high rates of sexual assault victimization reported by this sample during study abroad replicate previous findings. This context requires further attention from sexual assault researchers, especially given the increasing numbers of university students engaging in study abroad, and from campus support personnel who may be unaware of the likelihood of assault in this context.

The Author(s) 2014.

Flack, William F. Jr.; Kimble, Matthew O.; Campbell, Brooke E.; Hopper, Allyson B.; Peterca, Oana; and Heller, Emily J. “Sexual Assault Victimization Among Female Undergraduates During Study Abroad: A Single Campus Survey Study.” Journal of Interpersonal Violence 30, no. 20 (2015) : 3453-3466.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Thomas H. Solomon – Mahoney, John R.; Li, John; Boyer, Carleen; and Solomon, Thomas H. “Frozen Reaction Fronts in Steady Flows: A Burning-Invariant-Manifold Perspective.” Physical Review E 92, no. 6 (2015) : 063005.

Thomas H. Solomon, Professor of Physics

The dynamics of fronts, such as chemical reaction fronts, propagating in two-dimensional fluid flows can be remarkably rich and varied. For time-invariant flows, the front dynamics may simplify, settling in to a steady state in which the reacted domain is static, and the front appears “frozen.” Our central result is that these frozen fronts in the two-dimensional fluid are composed of segments of burning invariant manifolds, invariant manifolds of front-element dynamics in xy theta space, where theta is the front orientation. Burning invariant manifolds (BIMs) have been identified previously as important local barriers to front propagation in fluid flows. The relevance of BIMs for frozen fronts rests in their ability, under appropriate conditions, to form global barriers, separating reacted domains from nonreacted domains for all time. The second main result of this paper is an understanding of bifurcations that lead from a nonfrozen state to a frozen state, as well as bifurcations that change the topological structure of the frozen front. Although the primary results of this study apply to general fluid flows, our analysis focuses on a chain of vortices in a channel flow with an imposed wind. For this system, we present both experimental and numerical studies that support the theoretical analysis developed here.

Mahoney, John R.; Li, John; Boyer, Carleen; and Solomon, Thomas H. “Frozen Reaction Fronts in Steady Flows: A Burning-Invariant-Manifold Perspective.” Physical Review E 92, no. 6 (2015) : 063005.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Andrea Halpern – Pfordresher, Peter Q.; Halpern, Andrea; and Greenspon, Emma B. “A Mechanism for Sensorimotor Translation in Singing: the Multi-Modal Imagery Association (MMIA) Model.” Music Perception 32, no. 3 (2015) : 242-253.

Andrea Halpern, Professor of Psychology

WE PROPOSE A NEW FRAMEWORK TO UNDERSTAND singing accuracy, based on multi-modal imagery associations: the MMIA model. This model is based on recent data suggesting a link between auditory imagery and singing accuracy, evidence for a link between imagery and the functioning of internal models for sensorimotor associations, and the use of imagery in singing pedagogy. By this account, imagery involves automatic associations between different modalities, which in the present context comprise associations between pitch height and the regulation of vocal fold tension. Importantly, these associations are based on probabilistic relationships that may vary with respect to their precision and accuracy. We further describe how this framework may be extended to multi-modal associations at the sequential level, and how these associations develop. The model we propose here constitutes one part of a larger architecture responsible for singing, but at the same time is cast at a general level that can extend to multi-modal associations outside the domain of singing.

Pfordresher, Peter Q.; Halpern, Andrea; and Greenspon, Emma B. “A Mechanism for Sensorimotor Translation in Singing: the Multi-Modal Imagery Association (MMIA) Model.” Music Perception 32, no. 3 (2015) : 242-253.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Karen M. Morin – Morin, Karen M. “Carceral Space: Prisoners and Animals.” Antipode: A Radical Journal of Geography (2016).

Karen M. Morin, Associate Provost

This paper develops a framework for exploring resonances across human and nonhuman carceral geographies. I illustrate the close linkages across prisoner and animal carcerality and captivity focusing on three types of sites and institutions: the prison execution chamber and the animal slaughterhouse; sites of medical (and other) laboratory testing of pharmaceutical and other products on incarcerated humans and captive animals; and sites and institutions of exploited prisoner and animal labor. The main themes that call for a ‘carceral comparison’ among these sites include the emotional and psychological strain and violence enacted on bodies that is interwoven into their day-to-day operations; their geographies (locations, design and layout) and the carefully choreographed and regulated movements within them that speak to regimes of surveillance, power, and control; and the ethical questions that arise when we consider the potential for these sites to become locations of genocide and extinction of particular populations.

Morin, Karen M. “Carceral Space: Prisoners and Animals.” Antipode: A Radical Journal of Geography (2016).

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Thomas H. Solomon – Megson, P. W.; Najarian, M. L.; Lilienthal, Katie; and Solomon, Thomas H. “Pinning of Reaction Fronts by Burning Invariant Manifolds in Extended Flows.” Physics of Fluids 27, no. 2 (2015) : 023601.

Thomas H. Solomon, Professor of Physics

We present experiments on the behavior of reaction fronts in extended, vortex-dominated flows in the presence of an imposed wind. We use the ferroin-catalyzed, excitable Belousov-Zhabotinsky chemical reaction, which produces pulse-like reaction fronts. Two time-independent flows are studied: an ordered (square) array of vortices and a spatially disordered flow. The flows are generated with a magneto-hydrodynamic forcing technique, with a pattern of magnets underneath the fluid cell. The magnets are mounted on a translation stage which moves with a constant speed V-d under the fluid, resulting in motion of the vortices within the flow. In a reference frame moving with magnets, the flow is equivalent to one with stationary vortices and a uniform wind with speed W = V-d. For a wide range of wind speeds, reaction fronts pin to the vortices (in a co-moving reference frame), propagating neither forward against the wind nor being blown backward. We analyze this pinning phenomenon and the resulting front shapes using a burning invariant manifold (BIM) formalism. The BIMs are one-way barriers to reaction fronts in the advection-reaction-diffusion process. Pinning occurs when several BIMs overlap to form a complete barrier that spans the width of the system. In that case, the shape of the front is determined by the shape of the BIMs. For the ordered array flow, we predict the locations of the BIMs numerically using a simplified model of the velocity field for the ordered vortex array and compare the BIM shapes to the pinned reaction fronts. We also explore transient behavior of the fronts (before reaching their steady state) to highlight the one-way nature of the BIMs. (C) 2015 Author(s).

Megson, P. W.; Najarian, M. L.; Lilienthal, Katie; and Solomon, Thomas H. “Pinning of Reaction Fronts by Burning Invariant Manifolds in Extended Flows.” Physics of Fluids 27, no. 2 (2015) : 023601.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Andrea Halpern – Pearce, Marcus T. and Halpern, Andrea. “Age-Related Patterns in Emotions Evoked by Music.”Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts 9, no. 3 (2015) : 248-253.

Andrea Halpern, Professor of Psychology

We presented older and younger nonmusician adult listeners with (mostly) unfamiliar excerpts of film music. All listeners rated their emotional reaction using the Geneva Emotional Music Scale 9 (GEMS-9; Zentner, Grandjean, & Scherer, 2008), and also rated familiarity and liking. The GEMS-9 was factor-analyzed into 3 factors of Animacy, Valence, and Arousal. Although the 2 age groups liked the music equally well, and showed roughly the same pattern of responses to the different emotion categories, the younger group showed a wider range of emotional reactivity on all the factors. We found support for a type of positivity effect, in that older people found Happy music somewhat less happy than did younger people, but found Sad music much less sad than did younger people. Older people also rated Fearful music more positively than did younger people. We propose that the GEMS-9 scale is an efficient and effective device to collect evoked emotion data for a wide age range of listeners.

Pearce, Marcus T. and Halpern, Andrea. “Age-Related Patterns in Emotions Evoked by Music.”Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts 9, no. 3 (2015) : 248-253.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Karen M. Morin – Morin, Karen M. “The Late-Modern American Jail: Epistemologies of Space and Violence.” The Geographical Journal forthcoming (2015).

Karen M. Morin, Associate Provost

One of the most troubling aspects of current trends in American mass incarceration is the extent to which ‘criminality’ is produced within prison walls, primarily in the form of inmate–inmate or inmate–staff assaults. Most methods of prison or jail control have the adverse, and perverse, effect of increasing inmates’ levels of fear, terror, and ultimately violence – with stabbings, beatings, and other types of assaults common occurrences. The design of podular ‘direct supervision’ jails and their accompanying philosophies of punishment aspire to change these conditions. Direct supervision features correctional officers inside each housing unit with no physical barriers impeding supervision, and is intended to create a safe, more humane, stress-free environment for both inmates and staff. This study draws on ethnographic evidence of inmate experiences with direct supervision at Douglas County Department of Corrections in Omaha, Nebraska (USA). The respondents generally do feel safe in this jail environment, for a combination of reasons, some of which are related to spatial design. Inmates identified a number of implications – gains and losses – of this more ‘humane’ form of incarceration in terms of power and empowerment. The study also documents the potential for inmate activism on their own behalf through this design.

Morin, Karen M. “The Late-Modern American Jail: Epistemologies of Space and Violence.” The Geographical Journal forthcoming (2015).

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Katharina Vollmayr-Lee – Helfferich, Julian; Vollmayr-Lee, Katharina; Ziebert, Falko; Meyer, Hendrik; and Baschnagel, Joerg. “Glass Formers Display Universal Non-Equilibrium Dynamics on the Level of Single-Particle Jumps.” European Physical Letters 109, (2015) : 36004-p1-36004-p9.

Katharina Vollmayr-Lee, Professor of Physics

Glasses are inherently out-of-equilibrium systems evolving slowly toward their equilibrium state in a process called physical aging. During aging, dynamic observables depend on the history of the system, hampering comparative studies of dynamics in different glass formers. Here, we demonstrate how glass formers can be directly compared on the level of single-particle jumps, i.e. the structural relaxation events underlying the alpha-process. Describing the dynamics in terms of a continuous-time random walk, an analytic prediction for the jump rate is derived. The result is subsequently compared to molecular-dynamics simulations of amorphous silica and a polymer melt as two generic representatives of strong and fragile glass formers, and good agreement is found.

Helfferich, Julian; Vollmayr-Lee, Katharina; Ziebert, Falko; Meyer, Hendrik; and Baschnagel, Joerg. “Glass Formers Display Universal Non-Equilibrium Dynamics on the Level of Single-Particle Jumps.” European Physical Letters 109, (2015) : 36004-p1-36004-p9.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Andrea Halpern – Lima, Cesar F.; Lavan, Nadine; Evans, Samuel; Agnew, Zarinah; Halpern, Andrea R.; Shanmugalingam, Pradheep; Meekings, Sophie; Boebinger, Dana; Ostarek, Markus; McGettigan, Carolyn; Warren, Jane E.; and Scott, Sophie K. “Feel the Noise: Relating Individual Differences in Auditory Imagery to the Structure and Function of Sensorimotor Systems.” Cerebral Cortex 25, no. 11 (2015) : 4638-4650.

Andrea Halpern, Professor of Psychology

Humans can generate mental auditory images of voices or songs, sometimes perceiving them almost as vividly as perceptual experiences. The functional networks supporting auditory imagery have been described, but less is known about the systems associated with interindividual differences in auditory imagery. Combining voxel-based morphometry and fMRI, we examined the structural basis of interindividual differences in how auditory images are subjectively perceived, and explored associations between auditory imagery, sensory-based processing, and visual imagery. Vividness of auditory imagery correlated with gray matter volume in the supplementary motor area (SMA), parietal cortex, medial superior frontal gyrus, and middle frontal gyrus. An analysis of functional responses to different types of human vocalizations revealed that the SMA and parietal sites that predict imagery are also modulated by sound type. Using representational similarity analysis, we found that higher representational specificity of heard sounds in SMA predicts vividness of imagery, indicating a mechanistic link between sensory- and imagery-based processing in sensorimotor cortex. Vividness of imagery in the visual domain also correlated with SMA structure, and with auditory imagery scores. Altogether, these findings provide evidence for a signature of imagery in brain structure, and highlight a common role of perceptual-motor interactions for processing heard and internally generated auditory information.

Lima, Cesar F.; Lavan, Nadine; Evans, Samuel; Agnew, Zarinah; Halpern, Andrea R.; Shanmugalingam, Pradheep; Meekings, Sophie; Boebinger, Dana; Ostarek, Markus; McGettigan, Carolyn; Warren, Jane E.; and Scott, Sophie K. “Feel the Noise: Relating Individual Differences in Auditory Imagery to the Structure and Function of Sensorimotor Systems.” Cerebral Cortex 25, no. 11 (2015) : 4638-4650.

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