Friday, February 26th, 2016

Jean Lamont – Lamont, Jean. “Trait Body Shame Predicts Health Outcomes in College Women: A Longitudinal Investigation.” Journal of Behavioral Medicine 38, no. 6 (2015) : 998-1008.

Jean Lamont, Visiting Assistant Professor of Psychology

Trait body shame impacts psychological health, but its influence on physical health heretofore has not been examined. While body shame may be expected to impact physical health through many mechanisms, this investigation tested whether trait body shame predicts physical health outcomes by promoting negative attitudes toward bodily processes, thereby diminishing health evaluation and ultimately impacting physical health. Correlational (Study 1, N=177) and longitudinal (Study 2, N=141) studies tested hypotheses that trait body shame would predict infections, self-rated health, and symptoms, and that body responsiveness and health evaluation would mediate these relationships. In Study 1, trait body shame predicted all three poor health outcomes, and body responsiveness and health evaluation mediated these relationships. Study 2 partially replicated these results while controlling for depression, smoking, and BMI, and longitudinal analyses supported the temporal precedence of trait body shame in the proposed model. Limitations and alternative pathways are discussed.

Lamont, Jean. “Trait Body Shame Predicts Health Outcomes in College Women: A Longitudinal Investigation.” Journal of Behavioral Medicine 38, no. 6 (2015) : 998-1008.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

T. Joel Wade – Wade, T. Joel; Weinstein, Erin; Dalal, Nina; and Salerno, Kelsey J. “I Can Dance: Further Investigations of the Effect of Dancing Ability on Mate Value.” Human Ethology Bulletin 30, no. 2 (2015) : 10-20.

T. Joel Wade, Professor of Psychology

The present research examined how being described as a dancer affects Black and White men and women’s assessed mate value in two studies. Study 1 examined evaluations of men by women and study 2 examined evaluations of women by men. Based on prior research examining how dancers are perceived and how body movements affect social perceiver’s evaluations of others, men and women described as dancers were expected to receive better ratings. Additionally, race of the individual being assessed was not expected to have any impact on mate value ratings. The results were consistent with the hypotheses. Men and women described as dancers received higher ratings than men and women described as non-dancers. Static manipulations of dancing ability also lead to evolutionary theory based evaluations of men and women.

Wade, T. Joel; Weinstein, Erin; Dalal, Nina; and Salerno, Kelsey J. “I Can Dance: Further Investigations of the Effect of Dancing Ability on Mate Value.” Human Ethology Bulletin 30, no. 2 (2015) : 10-20.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Aaron D. Mitchel – Lusk, Laina G. and Mitchel, Aaron D. “Differential Gaze Patterns on Eyes and Mouth During Audiovisual Speech Segmentation.” Frontiers in Psychology 7, (2016) : 52-52.

Aaron D. Mitchel, Assistant Professor of Psychology

Speech is inextricably multisensory: both auditory and visual components provide critical information for all aspects of speech processing, including speech segmentation, the visual components of which have been the target of a growing number of studies. In particular, a recent study (Mitchel and Weiss, 2014) established that adults can utilize facial cues (i.e., visual prosody) to identify word boundaries in fluent speech. The current study expanded upon these results, using an eye tracker to identify highly attended facial features of the audiovisual display used in Mitchel and Weiss (2014). Subjects spent the most time watching the eyes and mouth. A significant trend in gaze durations was found with the longest gaze duration on the mouth, followed by the eyes and then the nose. In addition, eye gaze patterns changed across familiarization as subjects learned the word boundaries, showing decreased attention to the mouth in later blocks while attention on other facial features remained consistent. These findings highlight the importance of the visual component of speech processing and suggest that the mouth may play a critical role in visual speech segmentation.

Lusk, Laina G. and Mitchel, Aaron D. “Differential Gaze Patterns on Eyes and Mouth During Audiovisual Speech Segmentation.” Frontiers in Psychology 7, (2016) : 52-52.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

John David Penniman – Penniman, John David. “‘The Health-Giving Cup’: Cyprian’s Ep. 63 and the Medicinal Power of Eucharistic Wine.” Journal of Early Christian Studies 23, no. 2 (2015) : 189-211.

John David Penniman, Assistant Professor of Religious Studies

Cyprian’s Epistle 63 represents the earliest extant account of the proper meaning and administration of the eucharistic cup. Against a group of Christians who were taking only water, Cyprian argues that wine is necessary for the ritual to be effective. While there has been much discussion surrounding the biblical references marshaled by Cyprian to prove his point, this article explores the extent to which those references are inflected through lexical and conceptual categories relating to the medical usage of wine. Wine figured prominently in literature on illness, health, and healing that proliferated during the Roman Empire. This article locates Cyprian within that broader dynamic, and argues that his emphasis on the health-giving effects of the eucharistic cup in Ep. 63 reflects similar descriptions of the medicinal power of wine found in manuals of Roman medicine and other folklore traditions.

Penniman, John David. “‘The Health-Giving Cup’: Cyprian’s Ep. 63 and the Medicinal Power of Eucharistic Wine.” Journal of Early Christian Studies 23, no. 2 (2015) : 189-211.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Aaron D. Mitchel – Evans, David W.; Lazar, Steven M.; Boomer, K B.; Mitchel, Aaron; Michael, Andrew M.; and Moore, Gregory J. “Social Cognition and Brain Morphology: Implications for Developmental Brain Dysfunction.” Brain Imaging and Behavior 9, no. 2 (2015) : 264-274.

Aaron D. Mitchel, Assistant Professor of Psychology

The social-cognitive deficits associated with several neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders have been linked to structural and functional brain anomalies. Given the recent appreciation for quantitative approaches to behavior, in this study we examined the brain-behavior links in social cognition in healthy young adults from a quantitative approach. Twenty-two participants were administered quantitative measures of social cognition, including the social responsiveness scale (SRS), the empathizing questionnaire (EQ) and the systemizing questionnaire (SQ). Participants underwent a structural, 3-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) procedure that yielded both volumetric (voxel count) and asymmetry indices. Model fitting with backward elimination revealed that a combination of cortical, limbic and striatal regions accounted for significant variance in social behavior and cognitive styles that are typically associated with neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. Specifically, as caudate and amygdala volumes deviate from the typical R > L asymmetry, and cortical gray matter becomes more R > L asymmetrical, overall SRS and Emotion Recognition scores increase. Social Avoidance was explained by a combination of cortical gray matter, pallidum (rightward asymmetry) and caudate (deviation from rightward asymmetry). Rightward asymmetry of the pallidum was the sole predictor of Interpersonal Relationships and Repetitive Mannerisms. Increased D-scores on the EQ-SQ, an indication of greater systemizing relative to empathizing, was also explained by deviation from the typical R > L asymmetry of the caudate.

Evans, David W.; Lazar, Steven M.; Boomer, K B.; Mitchel, Aaron; Michael, Andrew M.; and Moore, Gregory J. “Social Cognition and Brain Morphology: Implications for Developmental Brain Dysfunction.” Brain Imaging and Behavior 9, no. 2 (2015) : 264-274.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

John David Penniman – Penniman, John David. “Fed to Perfection: Mother’s Milk, Roman Family Values, and the Transformation of the Soul in Gregory of Nyssa.” Church History 84, no. 3 (2015) : 495-530.

John David Penniman, Assistant Professor of Religious Studies

Prompted by Michel Foucault’s observation that “salvation is first of all essentially subsistence,” this essay explores Gregory of Nyssa’s discussion of Christian spiritual formation as a kind of salvific and transformative feeding of infants. This article argues that the prominent role of nourishment-and specifically breast milk-in Gregory’s theory of progressive Christian perfection reflects broader Roman era family values concerning the power of breast feeding in the proper development of a child. With particular attention to Gregory’s Encomium for Saint Basil, the Life of Moses, and his Homilies on the Song of Songs, this article demonstrates that references to the power of nourishment are no ” mere metaphor” but rather represent an intensification of the prominent belief in antiquity that human nature can be altered according to the food a person eats. As such, Gregory employs the female body and its putatively maternal function as a regulatory symbol for Christian identity-formation. Mother’s milk is thus offered as a mechanism for preserving and transmitting the ideal form of the Christian community that Gregory found embodied in the ambiguously gendered characters of the Song of Songs. True Christians, in Gregory’s account, are identified by the milk on which they were fed and, in turn, the nurturing care they offer to others.

Penniman, John David. “Fed to Perfection: Mother’s Milk, Roman Family Values, and the Transformation of the Soul in Gregory of Nyssa.” Church History 84, no. 3 (2015) : 495-530.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Kevin P. Myers – Wald, Hallie S. and Myers, Kevin P. “Enhanced Flavor-Nutrient Conditioning in Obese Rats on a High-Fat, High-Carbohydrate Choice Diet.” Physiology & Behavior 151, (2015) : 102-110.

Kevin P. Myers, Associate Professor of Psychology

Through flavor-nutrient conditioning rats learn to prefer and increase their intake of flavors paired with rewarding, postingestive nutritional consequences. Since obesity is linked to altered experience of food reward and to perturbations of nutrient sensing, we investigated flavor-nutrient learning in rats made obese using a high fat/high carbohydrate (HFHC) choice model of diet-induced obesity (ad libitum lard and maltodextrin solution plus standard rodent chow). Forty rats were maintained on HFHC to induce substantial weight gain, and 20 were maintained on chow only (CON). Among HFHC rats, individual differences in propensity to weight gain were studied by comparing those with the highest proportional weight gain (obesity prone, OP) to those with the lowest (obesity resistant, OR). Sensitivity to postingestive food reward was tested in a flavor-nutrient conditioning protocol. To measure initial, within-meal stimulation of flavor acceptance by post-oral nutrient sensing, first, in sessions 1-3, baseline licking was measured while rats consumed grape- or cherry-flavored saccharin accompanied by intragastric (IG) water infusion. Then, in the next three test sessions they received the opposite flavor paired with 5ml of IG 12% glucose. Finally, after additional sessions alternating between the two flavor-infusion contingencies, preference was measured in a two-bottle choice between the flavors without IG infusions. HFHC-OP rats showed stronger initial enhancement of intake in the first glucose infusion sessions than CON or HFHC-OR rats. OP rats also most strongly preferred the glucose-paired flavor in the two-bottle choice. These differences between OP versus OR and CON rats suggest that obesity is linked to responsiveness to postoral nutrient reward, consistent with the view that flavor-nutrient learning perpetuates overeating in obesity.Copyright 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Wald, Hallie S. and Myers, Kevin P. “Enhanced Flavor-Nutrient Conditioning in Obese Rats on a High-Fat, High-Carbohydrate Choice Diet.” Physiology & Behavior 151, (2015) : 102-110.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Carl Milofsky – Green, Brandn; Jones, Kristal; Boyd, Neil; Milofsky, Carl; and Martin, Eric C. “Students Implement the Affordable Care Act: A Model for Undergraduate Teaching and Research in Community Health and Sociology.” Journal of Community Health 40, no. 3 (2015) : 605-611.

Carl Milofsky, Professor of Sociology

The implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) provides an opportunity for undergraduate students to observe and experience first-hand changing social policies and their impacts for individuals and communities. This article overviews an action research and teaching project developed at an undergraduate liberal arts university and focused on providing ACA enrollment assistance as a way to support student engagement with community health. The project was oriented around education, enrollment and evaluation activities in the community, and students and faculty together reflected on and analyzed the experiences that came from the research and outreach project. Student learning centered around applying concepts of diversity and political agency to health policy and community health systems. Students reported and faculty observed an unexpected empowerment for students who were able to use their university-learned critical thinking skills to explain complex systems to a wide range of audiences. In addition, because the project was centered at a university with no health professions programs, the project provided students interested in community and public health with the opportunity to reflect on how health and access to health care is conditioned by social context. The structure and pedagogical approaches and implications of the action research and teaching project is presented here as a case study for how to engage undergraduates in questions of community and public health through the lens of health policy and community engagement.

Green, Brandn; Jones, Kristal; Boyd, Neil; Milofsky, Carl; and Martin, Eric C. “Students Implement the Affordable Care Act: A Model for Undergraduate Teaching and Research in Community Health and Sociology.” Journal of Community Health 40, no. 3 (2015) : 605-611.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Kevin P. Myers – Brunstrom, Jeffrey M.; Rogers, Peter J.; Myers, Kevin P.; and Holtzman, Jon D. “In Search of Flavour-Nutrient Learning: A Study of the Samburu Pastoralists of North-Central Kenya.” Appetite 91, (2015) : 415-425.

Kevin P. Myers, Associate Professor of Psychology

Much of our dietary behaviour is learned. In particular, one suggestion is that ‘flavour-nutrient learning’ (F-NL) influences both choice and intake of food. F-NL occurs when an association forms between the orosensory properties of a food and its postingestive effects. Unfortunately, this process has been difficult to evaluate because F-NL is rarely observed in controlled studies of adult humans. One possibility is that we are disposed to F-NL. However, learning is compromised by exposure to a complex Western diet that includes a wide range of energy-dense foods. To test this idea we explored evidence for F-NL in a sample of semi-nomadic pastoralists who eat a very limited diet, and who are lean and food stressed. Our Samburu participants (N = 68) consumed a sensory-matched portion (400 g) of either a novel low (0.72 kcal/g) or higher (1.57 kcal/g) energy-dense semi-solid food on two training days, and an intermediate version on day 3. Before and after each meal we measured appetite and assessed expected satiation and liking for the test food. We found no evidence of F-NL. Nevertheless, self-reported measures were very consistent and, as anticipated, expected satiation increased as the test food became familiar (expectedsatiation drift). Surprisingly,we observed insensitivity to the effects of test-meal energy density on measures of post-meal appetite. To explore this further we repeated a single training day using participants (N = 52) from the UK. Unlike in the Samburu, the higher energy-dense meal caused greater suppression of appetite. These observations expose interesting cross-cultural differences in sensitivity to the energy content of food. More generally, our work illustrates how measures can be translated to assess different populations, highlighting the potential for further comparisons of this kind.

Brunstrom, Jeffrey M.; Rogers, Peter J.; Myers, Kevin P.; and Holtzman, Jon D. “In Search of Flavour-Nutrient Learning: A Study of the Samburu Pastoralists of North-Central Kenya.” Appetite 91, (2015) : 415-425.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

John A. Doces – Magee, Christopher S. and Doces, John A. “Reconsidering Regime Type and Growth: Lies, Dictatorships, and Statistics.” International Studies Quarterly 59, no. 2 (2015) : 223-237.

John A. Doces, Associate Professor of Political Science

Some recent papers have concluded that authoritarian regimes have faster economic growth than democracies. These supposed growth benefits of autocracies are estimated using data sets in which growth rates rely heavily on data reported by each government. Governments have incentives to exaggerate their economic growth figures, however, and authoritarian regimes may have fewer limitations than democracies on their ability to do so. This paper argues that growth data submitted to international agencies are overstated by authoritarian regimes compared to democracies. If true, it calls into question the estimated relationship between government type and economic growth found in the literature. To measure the degree to which each government’s official growth statistics are overstated, the economic growth rates reported in the World Bank’s World Development Indicators are compared to a new measure of economic growth based on satellite imaging of nighttime lights. This comparison reveals whether or not dictators exaggerate their true growth rates and by how much. Annual GDP growth rates are estimated to be overstated by 0.5-1.5 percentage points in the statistics that dictatorships report to the World Bank.

Magee, Christopher S. and Doces, John A. “Reconsidering Regime Type and Growth: Lies, Dictatorships, and Statistics.” International Studies Quarterly 59, no. 2 (2015) : 223-237.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Andrea Halpern – Schaal, Nora K.; Javadi, Amir-Homayoun; Halpern, Andrea; Pollok, Bettina; and Banissy, Michael J. “Right Parietal Cortex Mediates Recognition Memory for Melodies.” European Journal of Neuroscience 42, no. 1 (2015) : 1660-1666.

Andrea Halpern, Professor of Psychology

Functional brain imaging studies have highlighted the significance of right-lateralized temporal, frontal and parietal brain areas for memory for melodies. The present study investigated the involvement of bilateral posterior parietal cortices (PPCs) for the recognition memory of melodies using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Participants performed a recognition task before and after tDCS. The task included an encoding phase (12 melodies), a retention period, as well as a recognition phase (24 melodies). Experiment 1 revealed that anodal tDCS over the right PPC led to a deterioration of overall memory performance compared with sham. Experiment 2 confirmed the results of Experiment 1 and further showed that anodal tDCS over the left PPC did not show a modulatory effect on memory task performance, indicating a right lateralization for musical memory. Furthermore, both experiments revealed that the decline in memory for melodies can be traced back to an interference of anodal stimulation on the recollection process (remember judgements) rather than to familiarity judgements. Taken together, this study revealed a causal involvement of the right PPC for memory for melodies and demonstrated a key role for this brain region in the recollection process of the memory task.

Schaal, Nora K.; Javadi, Amir-Homayoun; Halpern, Andrea; Pollok, Bettina; and Banissy, Michael J. “Right Parietal Cortex Mediates Recognition Memory for Melodies.” European Journal of Neuroscience 42, no. 1 (2015) : 1660-1666.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Katelyn Allers – Garcia, E. V.; Dupuy, Trent J.; Allers, Katelyn N.; Liu, Michael C.; and Deacon, Niall R. “On the Binary Frequency of the Lowest Mass Members of the Pleiades with Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3.” Astrophysical Journal 804, no. 1 (2015) : 65.

Katelyn Allers, Associate Professor of Physics & Astronomy

We present the results of a Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) imaging survey of 11 of the lowest mass brown dwarfs in the Pleiades known (25-40M(Jup)). These objects represent the predecessors to T dwarfs in the field. Using a semi-empirical binary point-spread function (PSF)-fitting technique, we are able to probe to 0 ”.03 (0.75 pixel), better than 2x the WFC3/UVIS diffraction limit. We did not find any companions to our targets. From extensive testing of our PSF-fitting method on simulated binaries, we compute detection limits which rule out companions to our targets with mass ratios of greater than or similar to 0.7 and separations greater than or similar to 4 AU. Thus, our survey is the first to attain the high angular resolution needed to resolve brown dwarf binaries in the Pleiades at separations that are most common in the field population. We constrain the binary frequency over this range of separation and mass ratio of 25-40M(Jup) Pleiades brown dwarfs to be < 11% for 1 sigma (< 26% at 2s). This binary frequency is consistent with both younger and older brown dwarfs in this mass range.

Garcia, E. V.; Dupuy, Trent J.; Allers, Katelyn N.; Liu, Michael C.; and Deacon, Niall R. “On the Binary Frequency of the Lowest Mass Members of the Pleiades with Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3.” Astrophysical Journal 804, no. 1 (2015) : 65.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

John A. Doces – Doces, John A. and Magee, Christopher S. “Trade and Democracy: A Factor-Based Approach.” International Interactions 41, no. 2 (2015) : 407-425.

John A. Doces, Associate Professor of Political Science

We study the relationship between trade openness and democracy using a data set with capital-labor ratios, trade flows, and regime type for 142 countries between 1960 and 2007. We are among the first to test a prediction that emerges from the model of Acemoglu and Robinson (2006): Relative factor endowments determine whether trade promotes democracy or not. The statistical results from two-stage least squares estimation indicate that trade is positively associated with democracy among labor-abundant countries but that trade has a negative effect on democracy in capital-abundant countries. The results are not robust, however, and thus we conclude that the evidence in support of their argument is relatively weak.

Doces, John A. and Magee, Christopher S. “Trade and Democracy: A Factor-Based Approach.” International Interactions 41, no. 2 (2015) : 407-425.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Katelyn Allers – Petigura, Erik A.; Schlieder, Joshua E.; Crossfield, Ian J.M.; Howard, Andrew W.; Deck, Katherine M.; Ciardi, David R.; Sinukoff, Evan; Allers, Katelyn N.; Best, William M.J.; Liu, Michael C.; Beichman, Charles A.; Isaacson, Howard; Hansen, Brad M.S.; and Lepine, Sebastien. “Two Transiting Earth-Size Planets Near Resonance Orbiting a Nearby Cool Star.” Astrophysical Journal 811, no. 2 (2015) : 102.

Katelyn Allers, Associate Professor of Physics & Astronomy

Discoveries from the prime Kepler mission demonstrated that small planets (<3R(circle plus)) are common outcomes of planet formation. While Kepler detected many such planets, all but a handful orbit faint, distant stars and are not amenable to precise follow up measurements. Here, we report the discovery of two small planets transiting K2-21, a bright (K = 9.4) M0 dwarf located 65 +/- 6 pc from Earth. We detected the transiting planets in photometry collected during Campaign 3 of NASA's K2 mission. Analysis of transit light curves reveals that the planets have small radii compared to their host star, R-P/R-star = 2.60 +/- 0.14% and 3.15 +/- 0.20%, respectively. We obtained follow up NIR spectroscopy of K2-21 to constrain host star properties, which imply planet sizes of 1.59 +/- 0.43 R-circle plus and 1.92 +/- 0.53 R-circle plus, respectively, straddling the boundary between high-density, rocky planets and low-density planets with thick gaseous envelopes. The planets have orbital periods of 9.32414 days and 15.50120 days, respectively, and a period ratio P-c/P-b = 1.6624, very near to the 5: 3 mean motion resonance, which may be a record of the system's formation history. Transit timing variations due to gravitational interactions between the planets may be detectable using ground-based telescopes. Finally, this system offers a convenient laboratory for studying the bulk composition and atmospheric properties of small planets with low equilibrium temperatures.

Petigura, Erik A.; Schlieder, Joshua E.; Crossfield, Ian J.M.; Howard, Andrew W.; Deck, Katherine M.; Ciardi, David R.; Sinukoff, Evan; Allers, Katelyn N.; Best, William M.J.; Liu, Michael C.; Beichman, Charles A.; Isaacson, Howard; Hansen, Brad M.S.; and Lepine, Sebastien. “Two Transiting Earth-Size Planets Near Resonance Orbiting a Nearby Cool Star.” Astrophysical Journal 811, no. 2 (2015) : 102.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Michael James – James, Michael. “Constituency Deliberation.” Political Research Quarterly 68, no. 3 (2015) : 552-563.

Michael James, Associate Professor of Political Science

How do we distinguish legitimate, democratic representation from illegitimate, undemocratic elite rule? Empirical scholars of representation typically rely on the “bedrock norm” that democratic representatives must respond to the antecedent interests of their constituents, but empirical studies of public opinion suggest that constituents’ interests emerge following engagement with their representatives. The result is the “constituency paradox”: representatives are supposed to respond to constituent interests, interests that representatives themselves help to create. Deliberative democratic theories seek to circumvent this paradox by distinguishing between representatives who communicatively educate their constituents from those who strategically manipulate them, but it is empirically impossible to distinguish legitimate education from illegitimate manipulation. Nondeliberative criteria requiring elite competition and popular contestation also fail to ground legitimate democratic representation. In response, I develop a model of constituency deliberation that does not rely on the bedrock norm, accepts strategic as well as communicative action, acknowledges the asymmetric but reciprocal relationship between constituents and representatives, and uses a systemic approach to assess democratic representation. This deliberative model leads to institutional reforms that avoid the bedrock norm and seek to mitigate representative manipulation by creating space for constituents to respond to representatives’ claims to represent their interests.

James, Michael. “Constituency Deliberation.” Political Research Quarterly 68, no. 3 (2015) : 552-563.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Jiajia Dong – Sahoo, Mamata; Dong, Jiajia; and Klumpp, Stefan. “Dynamic Blockage in an Exclusion Process.”Journal of Physics A–Mathematical and Theoretical 48, no. 1 (2015) : 015007.

Jiajia Dong, Associate Professor of Physics & Astronomy

We study an asymmetric exclusion model with one dynamic roadblock particle. The roadblock particle is allowed to move diffusively as well as by longrange jumps mimicking an unbinding/rebinding process. Using Monte Carlo simulations and analytical arguments, the two types of roadblock moves are considered both separately and in combination. Several interesting dynamic phenomena are observed. The long-range jumps of the roadblock lead to a current that depends on the number of particles in the system rather than on the particle density, and thus scales linearly with the system size (up to a critical size). This behavior can be explained by a collective motion of all particles following the roadblock. The diffusive roadblock movements on the other hand lead to a ratcheting motion with the active (driven) particles pushing the roadblock forward.

Sahoo, Mamata; Dong, Jiajia; and Klumpp, Stefan. “Dynamic Blockage in an Exclusion Process.”Journal of Physics A–Mathematical and Theoretical 48, no. 1 (2015) : 015007.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Michael James – James, Michael Rabinder. “Two Concepts of Constituency.” Journal of Politics 77, no. 2 (2015) : 381-393.

Michael James, Associate Professor of Political Science

In this essay, I challenge the conceptual and normative arguments of Andrew Rehfeld’s The Concept of Constituency. I argue that Rehfeld conflates two distinct concepts of constituency as a result of errors in his normative argument for random, permanent constituencies. In response, I carefully distinguish the two concepts of objective constituency (the grouping of citizens into geographic or other electoral rolls through parametric action) and subjective constituency (the formation of cohesive voting blocs to elect a representative through strategic and communicative action between constituents and candidates). Distinguishing between objective and subjective constituency allows me to identify the shortcomings in the normative analyses of democratic constituencies proffered by Lisa Disch and Thomas Pogge. I then propose the use of random, permanent constituencies, each of which elects five representatives through the single transferable vote. This facilitates the representation of racial and ethnic minorities, while encouraging constituency deliberation aimed at the national interest.

James, Michael Rabinder. “Two Concepts of Constituency.” Journal of Politics 77, no. 2 (2015) : 381-393.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Jiajia Dong – Dong, JiaJia. “Spatial Structures in a Simple Model of Population Dynamics for Parasite-Host Interactions.” Europhysics Letters 111, no. 4 (2015) : 48001.

Jiajia Dong, Associate Professor of Physics & Astronomy

Spatial patterning can be crucially important for understanding the behavior of interacting populations. Here we investigate a simple model of parasite and host populations in which parasites are random walkers that must come into contact with a host in order to reproduce. We focus on the spatial arrangement of parasites around a single host, and we derive using analytics and numerical simulations the necessary conditions placed on the parasite fecundity and lifetime for the population’s long-term survival. We also show that the parasite population can be pushed to extinction by a large drift velocity, but, counterintuitively, a small drift velocity generally increases the parasite population.

Dong, JiaJia. “Spatial Structures in a Simple Model of Population Dynamics for Parasite-Host Interactions.” Europhysics Letters 111, no. 4 (2015) : 48001.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Chris Boyatzis – Cook, Kaye V.; Kimball, Cynthia; Boyatzis, Chris; and Leonard, Kathleen C. “Religiousness and Spirituality Among Highly Religious Emerging Adults.” Journal of Psychology and Christianity 34, no. 3 (2015) : 252-265.

Chris Boyatzis, Professor of Psychology

Three mixed-methods studies assessed whether students at Christian colleges maintain a traditional faith over time. For a population of recent, two-year, and four-year alumni at two Christian colleges (Study 1), as well as first-year and senior undergraduate students at one of the two Christian colleges (Studies 2 and 3), we measured changes in denominational commitments, religious attitudes and behavior, and descriptions of changing points in faith. We analyzed the interview data (faith changing points) for instances of moralistic therapeutic deism (MTD), which Smith and his colleagues (Smith & Denton, 2005; Smith & Snell, 2009) have identified as characteristic of emerging adults’ religiousness. MTD is described as a watered-down faith in which God is understood as a personal helper who sets moral standards but places little demand on the believer. Our findings indicate that undergraduates and alumni from Christian college contexts maintain solid faith commitments that are not consistent with MTD. Instead they hold a robust, traditional faith marked by trust in God, ownership of their own faith, and an embrace of historically central religious constructs, consistent with the traditionalists (Smith & Snell, 2009) and conservative believers (Arnett, 2014). In their traditionalism, the undergraduates in Study 3 experience themselves as having greater concern for spirituality (or faith) than when they entered college, but no greater concern for religiousness (or institutional commitment), describing themselves as “more spiritual but less religious.”

Cook, Kaye V.; Kimball, Cynthia; Boyatzis, Chris; and Leonard, Kathleen C. “Religiousness and Spirituality Among Highly Religious Emerging Adults.” Journal of Psychology and Christianity 34, no. 3 (2015) : 252-265.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Jack F. Gallimore – Sales, Dinalva; Robinson, Andy; Axon, David J.; Gallimore, Jack F.; Kharb, Preeti; Curran, Rachel L.; O’Dea, Christopher P.; Baum, Stefi A.; Elitzur, Moshe; and Mittal, Rupal. “An Embedded Active Nucleus in the OH Megamaser Galaxy IRAS16399-0937.” The Astrophysical Journal 799, (2015) : 25.

Jack F. Gallimore, Associate Professor of Physics

We present a multiwavelength study of the OH megamaser galaxy IRAS16399-0937, based on new Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Advanced Camera for Surveys F814W and Hα+[N II] images and archive data from HST, Two Micron All Sky Survey, Spitzer, Herschel and the Very Large Array. This system has a double nucleus, whose northern (IRAS16399N) and southern (IRAS16399S) components have a projected separation of ~6” (3.4 kpc) and have previously been identified based on optical spectra as a low ionization nuclear emission line region (LINER) and starburst nucleus, respectively. The nuclei are embedded in a tidally distorted common envelope, in which star formation is mostly heavily obscured. The infrared spectrum is dominated by strong polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, but deep silicate and molecular absorption features are also present, and are strongest in the IRAS16399N nucleus. The 0.435-500 μm spectral energy distribution was fitted with a model including stellar, interstellar medium and active galactic nucleus (AGN) torus components using our new Markov Chain Monte Carlo code, CLUMPYDREAM. The results indicate that the IRAS16399N contains an AGN (L bol ~ 1044 erg s-1) deeply embedded in a quasi-spherical distribution of optically thick clumps with a covering fraction ≈1. We suggest that these clumps are the source of the OHM emission in IRAS16399-0937. The high torus covering fraction precludes AGN photoionization as the origin of the LINER spectrum, however, the spectrum is consistent with shocks (v ~ 100-200 km s-1). We infer that the ~108 M black hole in IRAS16399N is accreting at a small fraction (~1%) of its Eddington rate. The low accretion rate and modest nuclear star formation rates suggest that while the gas-rich major merger forming the IRAS16399-0937 system has triggered widespread star formation, the massive gas inflows expected from merger simulations have not yet fully developed.

Sales, Dinalva; Robinson, Andy; Axon, David J.; Gallimore, Jack F.; Kharb, Preeti; Curran, Rachel L.; O’Dea, Christopher P.; Baum, Stefi A.; Elitzur, Moshe; and Mittal, Rupal. “An Embedded Active Nucleus in the OH Megamaser Galaxy IRAS16399-0937.” The Astrophysical Journal 799, (2015) : 25.

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