Friday, February 26th, 2016

Chris Martine – Martine, Chris and Hale, Alison N. “Parasitism Disruption a Likely Consequence of Belowground War Waged by Exotic Plant Invader.” American Journal of Botany 102, no. 3 (2015) : 327-328.

Chris Martine, Associate Professor of Biology

Martine, Chris and Hale, Alison N. “Parasitism Disruption a Likely Consequence of Belowground War Waged by Exotic Plant Invader.” American Journal of Botany 102, no. 3 (2015) : 327-328.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Mark F. Haussmann – Lewin, Nora; Treidel, Lisa A.; Holekamp, Kay E.; Place, Ned J.; and Haussmann, Mark F. “Socioecological Variables Predict Telomere Length in Wild Spotted Hyenas.” Biology Letters 11, no. 2 (2015) : 20140991.

Mark F. Haussmann, Associate Professor of Biology

Telomeres are regarded as important biomarkers of ageing and serve as useful tools in revealing how stress acts at the cellular level. However, the effects of social and ecological factors on telomere length remain poorly understood, particularly in free-ranging mammals. Here, we investigated the influences of within-group dominance rank and group membership on telomere length in wild adult spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta). We found large effects of both factors; high-ranking hyenas exhibited significantly greater mean telomere length than did subordinate animals, and group membership significantly predicted mean telomere length within high-ranking females. We further inquired whether prey availability mediates the observed effect of group membership on telomere length, but this hypothesis was not supported. Interestingly, adult telomere length was not predicted by age. Our work shows for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the effects of social rank on telomere length in a wild mammal and enhances our understanding of how social and ecological variables may contribute to organismal senescence.

Lewin, Nora; Treidel, Lisa A.; Holekamp, Kay E.; Place, Ned J.; and Haussmann, Mark F. “Socioecological Variables Predict Telomere Length in Wild Spotted Hyenas.” Biology Letters 11, no. 2 (2015) : 20140991.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Tristan Stayton – Stayton, Tristan. “The Definition, Recognition, and Interpretation of Convergent Evolution, and Two New Measures for Quantifying and Assessing the Significance of Convergence.” Evolution69, no. 8 (2015) : 2140-2153.

Tristan Stayton, Associate Professor of Biology

Convergent evolution is an important phenomenon in the history of life. Despite this, there is no common definition of convergence used by biologists. Instead, several conceptually different definitions are employed. The primary dichotomy is between pattern-based definitions, where independently evolved similarity is sufficient for convergence, and process-based definitions, where convergence requires a certain process to produce this similarity. The unacknowledged diversity of definitions can lead to problems in evolutionary research. Process-based definitions may bias researchers away from studying or recognizing other sources of independently evolved similarity, or lead researchers to interpret convergent patterns as necessarily caused by a given process. Thus, pattern-based definitions are recommended. Existing measures of convergence are reviewed, and two new measures are developed. Both are pattern based and conceptually minimal, quantifying nothing but independently evolved similarity. One quantifies the amount of phenotypic distance between two lineages that is closed by subsequent evolution; the other simply counts the number of lineages entering a region of phenotypic space. The behavior of these measures is explored in simulations; both show acceptable Type I and Type II error. The study of convergent evolution will be facilitated if researchers are explicit about working definitions of convergence and adopt a standard toolbox of convergence measures.

Stayton, Tristan. “The Definition, Recognition, and Interpretation of Convergent Evolution, and Two New Measures for Quantifying and Assessing the Significance of Convergence.” Evolution69, no. 8 (2015) : 2140-2153.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Chris Martine – Martine, Chris; Langdon, Stephen; Shearman, Timothy; Binggeli, Casey; and Mihuc, Timothy B. “European Frogbit (Hydrocharis morsus-ranae) in the Champlain/Adirondack Region: Recent Inferences.” Rhodora 117, no. 972 (2015) : 499-504.

Chris Martine, Associate Professor of Biology

As part of its north-south movement following introduction to Canada, Hydrocharis morsus-ranae L. (Hydrocharitaceae) has recently become established in slow-moving waters of the Champlain/Adirondack region of the northeastern US. The species is present on both the New York and Vermont shores of Lake Champlain and, so far, at a single location in the interior of the Adirondack Park. The southernmost Champlain/Adirondack occurrence is in the Champlain Canal south of Whitehall, NY (L. Eichler, Darrin Freshwater Institute, pers. comm.), within 25 miles of the Hudson River watershed—a population first recorded around 2006. Entry into the Hudson watershed, whether from the canal or Adirondack headwaters, has the potential to increase the spread of European frogbit well beyond the handful of spot occurrences currently recorded in the rest of the Northeast. The objective of this note is to summarize findings derived from recent student-driven research conducted on the status and biology of H. morsus-ranae in the Champlain/Adirondack region.

Martine, Chris; Langdon, Stephen; Shearman, Timothy; Binggeli, Casey; and Mihuc, Timothy B. “European Frogbit (Hydrocharis morsus-ranae) in the Champlain/Adirondack Region: Recent Inferences.” Rhodora 117, no. 972 (2015) : 499-504.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Mark F. Haussmann – Hau, Michaela; Haussmann, Mark F.; Greives, Timothy J.; Matlack, Christa; Costantini, David; Quetting, Michael; Adelman, James S.; Miranda, Ana Catarina; and Partecke, Jesko. “Repeated Stressors in Adulthood Increase the Rate of Biological Ageing.” Frontiers in Zoology 12, no. 4 (2015 ).

Mark F. Haussmann, Associate Professor of Biology

Background: Individuals of the same age can differ substantially in the degree to which they have accumulated tissue damage, akin to bodily wear and tear, from past experiences. This accumulated tissue damage reflects the individual’s biological age and may better predict physiological and behavioural performance than the individual’s chronological age. However, at present it remains unclear how to reliably assess biological age in individual wild vertebrates. Methods: We exposed hand-raised adult Eurasian blackbirds (Turdus merula) to a combination of repeated immune and disturbance stressors for over one year to determine the effects of chronic stress on potential biomarkers of biological ageing including telomere shortening, oxidative stress load, and glucocorticoid hormones. We also assessed general measures of individual condition including body mass and locomotor activity. Results: By the end of the experiment, stress-exposed birds showed greater decreases in telomere lengths. Stress-exposed birds also maintained higher circulating levels of oxidative damage compared with control birds. Other potential biomarkers such as concentrations of antioxidants and glucocorticoid hormone traits showed greater resilience and did not differ significantly between treatment groups. Conclusions: The current data demonstrate that repeated exposure to experimental stressors affects the rate of biological ageing in adult Eurasian blackbirds. Both telomeres and oxidative damage were affected by repeated stress exposure and thus can serve as blood-derived biomarkers of biological ageing.

Hau, Michaela; Haussmann, Mark F.; Greives, Timothy J.; Matlack, Christa; Costantini, David; Quetting, Michael; Adelman, James S.; Miranda, Ana Catarina; and Partecke, Jesko. “Repeated Stressors in Adulthood Increase the Rate of Biological Ageing.” Frontiers in Zoology 12, no. 4 (2015 ).

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

DeeAnn Reeder – Grieneisen, Laura E.; Brownlee-Bouboulis, Sarah A.; Johnson, Joseph S.; and Reeder, DeeAnn. “Sex and Hibernaculum Temperature Predict Survivorship in White-Nose Syndrome Affected Little Brown Myotis (Myotis lucifugus).” Royal Society Open Science 2, (2015) : 140470.

DeeAnn Reeder, Professor of Biology

White-nose syndrome (WNS), an emerging infectious disease caused by the novel fungusPseudogymnoascus destructans, has devastated North American bat populations since its discovery in 2006. The little brown myotis, Myotis lucifugus, has been especially affected. The goal of this 2-year captive study was to determine the impact of hibernacula temperature and sex on WNS survivorship in little brown myotis that displayed visible fungal infection when collected from affected hibernacula. In study 1, we found that WNS-affected male bats had increased survival over females and that bats housed at a colder temperature survived longer than those housed at warmer temperatures. In study 2, we found that WNS-affected bats housed at a colder temperature fared worse than unaffected bats. Our results demonstrate that WNS mortality varies among individuals, and that colder hibernacula are more favourable for survival. They also suggest that female bats may be more negatively affected by WNS than male bats, which has important implications for the long-term survival of the little brown myotis in eastern North America.

Grieneisen, Laura E.; Brownlee-Bouboulis, Sarah A.; Johnson, Joseph S.; and Reeder, DeeAnn. “Sex and Hibernaculum Temperature Predict Survivorship in White-Nose Syndrome Affected Little Brown Myotis (Myotis lucifugus).” Royal Society Open Science 2, (2015) : 140470.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Steve Jordan – Jones, Brandon R. and Jordan, Steve. “Genetic Consequences of Pleistocene Sea-Level Change on Hawaiian Megalagrion Damselflies.” Journal of Heredity 106, no. 5 (2015) : 618-627.

Steve Jordan, Associate Professor of Biology

The Hawaiian Islands have long been an important laboratory for evolutionary research because their geological histories offer many natural experiments. For example, the Maui Nui complex, 4 islands that have been repeatedly connected and separated by fluctuating sea levels, lie near Hawaii Island, which has never been connected to another island. Here, we examine the genetic consequences of fluctuating island areas and connectivity using microsatellite analysis of 2 widespread, endemic Hawaiian damselflies. We screened 152 Megalagrion xanthomelas individuals from 5 islands at 14 loci and 34 Megalagrion pacificum from 3 islands at 11 loci to explore dispersal patterns and genetic diversity. Our data suggest that Pleistocene fluctuations in sea level alternated between creating land bridges that facilitated gene flow between once and future islands, and ocean channels that inhibited dispersal. Furthermore, interglacial periods of high sea stands likely reduced suitable habitat availability, causing the loss of genetic diversity on Maui Nui due to bottlenecks and founder events. Finally, we propose that gene flow from Molokai to Lanai may be enhanced by assisted dispersal from the trade winds that are channeled between volcanoes on western Maui and eastern Molokai. Our results emphasize the importance of variable microevolutionary processes in Hawaiian biogeography.The American Genetic Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

Jones, Brandon R. and Jordan, Steve. “Genetic Consequences of Pleistocene Sea-Level Change on Hawaiian Megalagrion Damselflies.” Journal of Heredity 106, no. 5 (2015) : 618-627.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Mark F. Haussmann – Fasanello, Vincent; Carlton, Elizabeth; Pott, Maddie; Marchetto, Nicole M.; Vaughn, Emily; McGraw, Kevin; Mauck, Robert A.; and Haussmann, Mark F. “Monomorphic ornamentation related to oxidative damage and assortative mating in the Black Guillemot (Cepphus grylle).” Waterbirds 38, no. 1 (2015) : 106-110.

Mark F. Haussmann, Associate Professor of Biology

The Black Guillemot (Cepphus grylle) is a monomorphic seabird characterized by its muted plumage and bright red feet, which it prominently displays during courtship. Foot color and oxidative stress were analyzed in a Black Guillemot colony at the Bay of Fundy during the 2006 and 2007 breeding seasons. While no relationship between red intensity of feet and carotenoids was uncovered, the level of plasma oxidative damage was negatively correlated with foot color. Additionally, red intensity of male feet was significantly correlated with the red intensity of their mates’ feet, suggesting the possibility of assortative mating by foot color in this species. Further experimental work is necessary to determine whether foot color is used in this species as an honest signal to relay information on the ability of an individual to manage oxidative stress

Fasanello, Vincent; Carlton, Elizabeth; Pott, Maddie; Marchetto, Nicole M.; Vaughn, Emily; McGraw, Kevin; Mauck, Robert A.; and Haussmann, Mark F. “Monomorphic ornamentation related to oxidative damage and assortative mating in the Black Guillemot (Cepphus grylle).” Waterbirds 38, no. 1 (2015) : 106-110.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

DeeAnn Reeder – Schaer, Juliane; Reeder, DeeAnn; Vodzak, Megan E.; Olival, Kevin J.; Weber, Natalie; Mayer, Frieder; Matuschewski, Kai; and Perkins, Susan L. “Nycteria Parasites of Afrotropical Insectivorous Bats.” International Journal for Parasitology 45, no. 6 (2015) : 375-384.

DeeAnn Reeder, Professor of Biology

Parasitic protozoan parasites have evolved many co-evolutionary paths towards stable transmission to their host population. Plasmodium spp., the causative agents of malaria, and related haemosporidian parasites are dipteran-borne eukaryotic pathogens that actively invade and use vertebrate erythrocytes for gametogenesis and asexual development, often resulting in substantial morbidity and mortality of the infected hosts. Here, we present results of a survey of insectivorous bats from tropical Africa, including new isolates of species of the haemosporidian genus Nycteria. A hallmark of these parasites is their capacity to infect bat species of distinct families of the two evolutionary distant chiropteran suborders. We did detect Nycteria parasites in both rhinolophid and nycterid bat hosts in geographically separate areas of Sub-Saharan Africa, however our molecular phylogenetic analyses support the separation of the parasites into two distinct clades corresponding to their host genera, suggestive of ancient co-divergence and low levels of host switching. For one clade of these parasites, cytochrome b genes could not be amplified and cytochrome oxidase I sequences showed unusually high rates of evolution, suggesting that the mitochondrial genome of these parasites may have either been lost or substantially altered. This haemosporidian parasite-mammalian host system also highlights that sequential population expansion in the liver and gametocyte formation is a successful alternative to intermediate erythrocytic replication cycles. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. on behalf of Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Schaer, Juliane; Reeder, DeeAnn; Vodzak, Megan E.; Olival, Kevin J.; Weber, Natalie; Mayer, Frieder; Matuschewski, Kai; and Perkins, Susan L. “Nycteria Parasites of Afrotropical Insectivorous Bats.” International Journal for Parasitology 45, no. 6 (2015) : 375-384.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Steve Jordan – Giersch, J. Joseph; Jordan, Steve; Luikart, Gordon; Jones, Leslie A.; Hauer, F. Richard; and Muhlfeld, Clint C. “Climate-Induced Range Contraction of a Rare Alpine Aquatic Invertebrate.” Freshwater Science 34, no. 1 (2015) : 53-65.

Steve Jordan, Associate Professor of Biology

Climate warming poses a serious threat to alpine-restricted species worldwide, yet few studies have empirically documented climate-induced changes in distributions. The rare stonefly, Zapada glacier (Baumann and Gaufin), endemic to alpine streams of Glacier National Park (GNP), Montana, was recently petitioned for listing under the US Endangered Species Act because of climate-change-induced glacier loss, yet little was known about its current status and distribution. We resampled streams throughout the historical distribution of Z. glacier to investigate trends in occurrence associated with changes in temperature and glacial extent. The current geographic distribution of the species was assessed using morphological characteristics of adults and DNA barcoding of nymphs. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of mtDNA data revealed 8 distinct clades of the genus corresponding with 7 known species from GNP, and one potentially cryptic species. Climate model simulations indicate that average summer air temperature increased (0.67-1.00 degrees C) during the study period (1960-2012), and glacial surface area decreased by approximate to 35% from 1966 to 2005. We detected Z. glacier in only 1 of the 6 historically occupied streams and at 2 new locations in GNP. These results suggest that an extremely restricted historical distribution of Z. glacier in GNP has been further reduced over the past several decades by an upstream retreat to higher, cooler sites as water temperatures increased and glacial masses decreased. More research is urgently needed to determine the status, distribution, and vulnerability of Z. glacier and other alpine stream invertebrates threatened by climate change in mountainous ecosystems.

Giersch, J. Joseph; Jordan, Steve; Luikart, Gordon; Jones, Leslie A.; Hauer, F. Richard; and Muhlfeld, Clint C. “Climate-Induced Range Contraction of a Rare Alpine Aquatic Invertebrate.” Freshwater Science 34, no. 1 (2015) : 53-65.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Mark F. Haussmann – Lendvai, Adam Z.; Akcay, Caglar; Weiss, Talia; Haussmann, Mark F.; Moore, Ignacio T.; and Bonier, Frances. “Low Cost Audiovisual Playback and Recording Triggered by Radio Frequency Identification Using Raspberry Pi.” PeerJ 4, (2015) : e877.

Mark F. Haussmann, Associate Professor of Biology

Playbacks of visual or audio stimuli to wild animals is a widely used experimental tool in behavioral ecology. In many cases, however, playback experiments are constrained by observer limitations such as the time observers can be present, or the accuracy of observation. These problems are particularly apparent when playbacks are triggered by specific events, such as performing a specific behavior, or are targeted to specific individuals. We developed a low-cost automated playback/recording system, using two field-deployable devices: radio-frequency identification (RFID) readers and Raspberry Pi micro-computers. This system detects a specific passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag attached to an individual, and subsequently plays back the stimuli, or records audio or visual information. To demonstrate the utility of this system and to test one of its possible applications, we tagged female and male tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) from two box-nesting populations with PIT tags and carried out playbacks of nestling begging calls every time focal females entered the nestbox over a six-hour period. We show that the RFID-Raspberry Pi system presents a versatile, low-cost, field-deployable system that can be adapted for many audio and visual playback purposes. In addition, the set-up does not require programming knowledge, and it easily customized to many other applications, depending on the research questions. Here, we discuss the possible applications and limitations of the system. The low cost and the small learning curve of the RFID-Raspberry Pi system provides a powerful new tool to field biologists.

Lendvai, Adam Z.; Akcay, Caglar; Weiss, Talia; Haussmann, Mark F.; Moore, Ignacio T.; and Bonier, Frances. “Low Cost Audiovisual Playback and Recording Triggered by Radio Frequency Identification Using Raspberry Pi.” PeerJ 4, (2015) : e877.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

DeeAnn Reeder – Pearson, Brandon L.; Reeder, DeeAnn; and Judge, Peter G. “Crowding Increases Salivary Cortisol But Not Self-Directed Behavior in Captive Baboons.” International Journal of Primatology (2015).

DeeAnn Reeder, Professor of Biology

Reduced space can lead to crowding in social animals. Crowding increases the risk of agonistic interactions that, in turn, may require additional physiological defensive coping mechanisms affecting health. To determine the stress induced from increased social density in a group of nineteen baboons living in an indoor/outdoor enclosure, saliva cortisol levels and rates of anxiety-related behavior were analyzed across two unique crowding episodes. Initially, mean salivary cortisol levels when animals were restricted to their indoor quarters were compared to those when they also had access to their larger outdoor enclosure. Then, mean cortisol levels were compared before, during, and after two distinct crowding periods of long and short duration. Crowding resulted in significantly elevated cortisol during crowding periods compared to non-crowded periods. Cortisol levels returned to baseline following two crowding episodes contrasting in their length and ambient climate conditions. These cortisol elevations indicate greater metabolic costs of maintaining homeostasis under social stress resulting from reduced space. Self-directed behavior, conversely, was not reliably elevated during crowding. Results suggest that the potential for negative social interactions, and/or the uncertainty associated with social threat can cause physiological stress responses detected by salivary cortisol. Self-directed behavioral measures of stress may constitute inadequate indicators of social stress in colony-housed monkeys or represent subjective emotional arousal unrelated to hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis activation.

Pearson, Brandon L.; Reeder, DeeAnn; and Judge, Peter G. “Crowding Increases Salivary Cortisol But Not Self-Directed Behavior in Captive Baboons.” International Journal of Primatology (2015).

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Joseph S. Johnson – Grieneisen, Laura E.; Brownlee-Bouboulis, Sarah A.; Johnson, Joseph S.; and Reeder, DeeAnn. “Sex and Hibernaculum Temperature Predict Survivorship in White-Nose Syndrome Affected Little Brown Myotis (Myotis lucifugus).” Royal Society Open Science 2, (2015) : 140470.

Joseph S. Johnson, Visiting Assistant Professor of Biology

White-nose syndrome (WNS), an emerging infectious disease caused by the novel fungusPseudogymnoascus destructans, has devastated North American bat populations since its discovery in 2006. The little brown myotis, Myotis lucifugus, has been especially affected. The goal of this 2-year captive study was to determine the impact of hibernacula temperature and sex on WNS survivorship in little brown myotis that displayed visible fungal infection when collected from affected hibernacula. In study 1, we found that WNS-affected male bats had increased survival over females and that bats housed at a colder temperature survived longer than those housed at warmer temperatures. In study 2, we found that WNS-affected bats housed at a colder temperature fared worse than unaffected bats. Our results demonstrate that WNS mortality varies among individuals, and that colder hibernacula are more favourable for survival. They also suggest that female bats may be more negatively affected by WNS than male bats, which has important implications for the long-term survival of the little brown myotis in eastern North America.

Grieneisen, Laura E.; Brownlee-Bouboulis, Sarah A.; Johnson, Joseph S.; and Reeder, DeeAnn. “Sex and Hibernaculum Temperature Predict Survivorship in White-Nose Syndrome Affected Little Brown Myotis (Myotis lucifugus).” Royal Society Open Science 2, (2015) : 140470.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Mark F. Haussmann – Gilmour, Morgan; Lattin, Christine; Romero, Michael; Haussmann, Mark F.; Mauck, Robert A.; and Dearborn, Donald C. “Finding the Best Predictor of Reproductive Performance of Leach’s Storm-Petrels.” Auk: Ornithological Advances 132, (2015) : 191-205.

Mark F. Haussmann, Associate Professor of Biology

Physiological and environmental factors shape foraging strategies and energy balance. For species that breed seasonally, physiological changes in an individual can have short-term effects, but also can persist as carry-over effects from one season to the next, such as from the overwintering season to the breeding season. We tested the hypothesis that reproductive performance could be predicted by diet and energy balance during the breeding and nonbreeding seasons in a long-lived seabird, the Leach’s Storm-Petrel (Oceanodroma leucorhoa). Specifically, we predicted that better reproductive performance would be correlated with four factors: (1) a high-lipid diet, as indexed by a high C:N ratio in stable isotope analyses; (2) a diet rich in antioxidants, as indexed by high plasma antioxidant capacity; (3) foraging at a high trophic level, as indexed by high values of δ15N in stable isotope analyses, which is positively related to lipids; and (4) a positive long-term energy balance, revealed by low levels of corticosterone in feathers. Because of our interest in short-term effects vs. carry-over effects, stable isotope values were measured from two different tissue sources: erythrocytes, to test for short-term effects, and winter-grown feathers, to test for carry-over effects. We monitored reproductive performance through egg volume, chick growth, parental provisioning, and fledging success. Parents with more breeding experience were more likely to have a successful nest in 2010, but not in 2009. Individuals exhibited consistent egg volume and nonbreeding season feather δ15N values across the 2 years of our study, but, overall, neither diet nor feather corticosterone predicted reproductive performance. Nonetheless, our simple, noninvasive measures of breeding performance could be applied to other species to study life-history strategies and energy balance.

Gilmour, Morgan; Lattin, Christine; Romero, Michael; Haussmann, Mark F.; Mauck, Robert A.; and Dearborn, Donald C. “Finding the Best Predictor of Reproductive Performance of Leach’s Storm-Petrels.” Auk: Ornithological Advances 132, (2015) : 191-205.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

DeeAnn Reeder – Johnson, Joseph S.; Reeder, DeeAnn M.; Lilley, Thomas M.; and Field, Ken. “Antibodies to Pseudogymnoascus destructans Are Not Sufficient for Protection Against White-Nose Syndrome.” Ecology and Evolution (2015).

DeeAnn Reeder, Professor of Biology

White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a fungal disease caused by Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd) that affects bats during hibernation. Although millions of bats have died from WNS in North America, mass mortality has not been observed among European bats infected by the fungus, leading to the suggestion that bats in Europe are immune. We tested the hypothesis that an antibody-mediated immune response can provide protection against WNS by quantifying antibod- ies reactive to Pd in blood samples from seven species of free-ranging bats in North America and two free-ranging species in Europe. We also quantified antibodies in blood samples from little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus) that were part of a captive colony that we injected with live Pd spores mixed with adjuvant, as well as individuals surviving a captive Pd infection trial. Seropreva- lence of antibodies against Pd, as well as antibody titers, was greater among lit- tle brown myotis than among four other species of cave-hibernating bats in North America, including species with markedly lower WNS mortality rates. Among little brown myotis, the greatest titers occurred in populations occupy- ing regions with longer histories of WNS, where bats lacked secondary symp- toms of WNS. We detected antibodies cross-reactive with Pd among little brown myotis na€ıve to the fungus. We observed high titers among captive little brown myotis injected with Pd. We did not detect antibodies against Pd in Pd- infected European bats during winter, and titers during the active season were lower than among little brown myotis. These results show that antibody-medi- ated immunity cannot explain survival of European bats infected with Pd and that little brown myotis respond differently to Pd than species with higher WNS survival rates. Although it appears that some species of bats in North America may be developing resistance to WNS, an antibody-mediated immune response does not provide an explanation for these remnant populations.

Johnson, Joseph S.; Reeder, DeeAnn M.; Lilley, Thomas M.; and Field, Ken. “Antibodies to Pseudogymnoascus destructans Are Not Sufficient for Protection Against White-Nose Syndrome.” Ecology and Evolution (2015).

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