Friday, February 26th, 2016

Deborah Sills – Beal, Colin M.; Gerber, Leda N.; Sills, Deborah L.; Huntley, Mark E.; Machesky, Stephen C.; Walsh, Michael J.; Tester, Jefferson W.; Archibald, Ian; Granados, Joe; and Greene, Charles H. “Algal Biofuel Production for Fuels and Feed in a 100-Ha Facility: A Comprehensive Techno-Economic Analysis and Life Cycle Assessment.” Algal Research 10, (2015) : 266-279.

Deborah Sills, Assistant Professor of Civil & Environmental Engineering

This techno-economic analysis/life-cycle assessment is based on actual production by the Cornell Marine Algal Biofuels Consortium with biomass productivity > 23 g/m(2)-day. Ten distinct cases are presented for two locations, Texas and Hawaii, based on a 100-ha production facility with end-to-end processing that yields fungible co-products including biocrude, animal feed, and ethanol. Several processing technologies were evaluated: centrifugation and solvent extraction (POS Biosciences), thermochemical conversion (Valicor), hydrothermal liquefaction (PNNL), catalytic hydrothermal gasification (Genifuel), combined heat and power, wet extraction (OpenAlgae), and fermentation. The facility design was optimized by co-location with waste CO2, a terraced design for gravity flow, using renewable energy, and low cost materials. The case studies are used to determine the impact of design choices on the energy return on investment, minimum fuel and feed sale prices, discounted payback period, as well as water depletion potential, human health, ecosystem quality, non-renewable resources, and climate change environmental indicators. The most promising cases would be economically competitive at market prices around $2/L for crude oil, while also providing major environmental benefits and freshwater savings. As global demands for fuels and protein continue rising, these results are important steps towards economical and environmentally sustainable production at an industrial scale. (C) 2015 Published by Elsevier B.V.

Beal, Colin M.; Gerber, Leda N.; Sills, Deborah L.; Huntley, Mark E.; Machesky, Stephen C.; Walsh, Michael J.; Tester, Jefferson W.; Archibald, Ian; Granados, Joe; and Greene, Charles H. “Algal Biofuel Production for Fuels and Feed in a 100-Ha Facility: A Comprehensive Techno-Economic Analysis and Life Cycle Assessment.” Algal Research 10, (2015) : 266-279.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Michelle Beiler – Oswald, Michelle R. and Treat, Christian. “Integrating GIS and AHP to Prioritize Transportation Infrastructure Using Sustainability Metrics.” Journal of Infrastructure Systems 21, no. 3 (2015) : 04014053.

Michelle Beiler, Assistant Professor of Civil & Environmental Engineering

As the risk of climate change continues, the need for transportation adaptation planning increases. Decisions regarding development (or redevelopment) of transportation systems, specifically transit facilities, have an essential role in the future of public mobility. Therefore, formalizing the project prioritization process using geographic information systems (GIS), sustainability metrics, and decision analysis techniques is needed. This research aims to identify sustainability metrics that address environmental, economic, and societal factors of transportation projects (rail or bus networks) using an integrative GIS and AHP (analytic hierarchy process) approach. Sustainability metrics are identified as factors based on their relevance to transit systems and their opportunity for spatial application, including climate-related factors such as sea level rise. Then, AHP is applied through a pairwise comparison survey in order to determine the importance of each factor to project prioritization. The survey results are used to develop the project and location prioritization index (PLPI). A case study application based on Philadelphia County’s commuter rail network is used to demonstrate the applicability of the index to a real world network.

Oswald, Michelle R. and Treat, Christian. “Integrating GIS and AHP to Prioritize Transportation Infrastructure Using Sustainability Metrics.” Journal of Infrastructure Systems 21, no. 3 (2015) : 04014053.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Kelly A. Salyards – Salyards, Kelly A. and Hua, Yue. “Assessment of Dynamic Properties of a Crowd Model for Human-Structure Interaction Modeling.” Engineering Structures 89, (2015) : 103-110.

Kelly A. Salyards, Associate Professor of Civil & Environmental Engineering

Occupants of a structure are thought to behave as a dynamic spring-mass-damper system interacting with the structure through a phenomenon known as human-structure interaction. Understanding this interaction is critical for vibration serviceability as neglecting to account for its effects may result in an overestimation of the dynamic response of a structure, and as a result, a more costly structural design. An experimental study has been performed and the results are compared with analytical models constructed with the parameters proposed by the Joint Working Group (JWG) in the United Kingdom for modeling occupants as a spring-mass-damper system. The results indicate that the parameters of the “active and mostly standing” crowd model satisfactorily represent the dynamic response of the structure with passive ocaupants standing with bent knees. However, the parameters of the “predominantly seated” crowd model did not adequately simulate the dynamic response of the structure when passive occupants were seated on the structure. A new set of parameters for passive standing occupants, not specifically addressed by the Joint Working Group, was also assessed yielding acceptable results. This study asserts that at least three different models, with varying parameters, are necessary to thoroughly understand the effects of human-structure interaction. The experimental results confirm the applicability of the JWG parameters for active occupants and verify the appropriateness of previously proposed parameters for modeling the passive standing occupant. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Salyards, Kelly A. and Hua, Yue. “Assessment of Dynamic Properties of a Crowd Model for Human-Structure Interaction Modeling.” Engineering Structures 89, (2015) : 103-110.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Michelle Beiler – Beiler, Michelle; Burkhart, Kelly; and Nicholson, Mike. “Evaluating the Impact of Rail-Trails: A Methodology for Assessing Travel Demand and Economic Impacts.” International Journal of Sustainable Transportation 9, no. 7 (2015) : 505-519.

Michelle Beiler, Assistant Professor of Civil & Environmental Engineering

As interest in sustainable transportation options rises, rail-trailsmultiuse paths created from former railroad corridorsare in demand. Rail-trail development projects promote sustainability through environmental, economic, and social benefits such as enhancing public health, reducing vehicular travel, and promoting local economic development. This study explores methods to measure the travel demand and economic impact of developing a rail-trail. A methodology, the Rail-Trail Impact Assessment Method (RTIAM), is proposed and is applied to the Buffalo Valley Rail Trail (BVRT), in Pennsylvania. An agency or committee could follow the method with the goals of (1) identifying trail demand through survey methods, manual counts, and automatic counts, (2) exploring the economic impacts as well as benefits to trail users, and (3) evaluating the need for possible trail expansion. The BVRT case study suggests the applicability of the method to a real-world trail project and exemplifies how local communities can begin to measure and promote the benefits of rail-trail development.

Beiler, Michelle; Burkhart, Kelly; and Nicholson, Mike. “Evaluating the Impact of Rail-Trails: A Methodology for Assessing Travel Demand and Economic Impacts.” International Journal of Sustainable Transportation 9, no. 7 (2015) : 505-519.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Jessica Newlin – Newlin, Jessica and Schultz, B. P. “Hydraulic Interaction between Rock Cross Vane Stream Restoration Structures and a Bridge Crossing.” River Research and Applications 31, no. 9 (2015) : 1183-1194.

Jessica Newlin, Assistant Professor of Civil & Environmental Engineering

The performance of a stream restoration project that incorporates a bridge crossing is evaluated within a 3-year monitoring period. A goal of the project was to alleviate and prevent future sediment aggradation within the waterway of a low-clearance bridge crossing. The stream restoration project included two rock cross vanes and stepped riprap and vegetation bank stabilization. Monitoring of the project involved the collection of channel survey data, pebble counts, and general observations of instream structure condition and sediment movement. The evaluated performance of the restoration structures is related to the general hydrologic conditions, the historical changes in the watershed and channel, and the hydraulic conditions created by the low-clearance bridge crossing. Backwater effects created by the bridge crossing are found to be a substantial cause of the failure of the stream restoration project to meet its goals. The low-clearance bridge hydraulics are preventing a rock cross vane located upstream of the bridge from creating a scour hole in the centre of the channel; instead, aggradation is occurring in this portion of the channel. However, degradation is occurring downstream of the bridge causing the failure of the second rock cross vane and of the riprap and vegetation bank. Although the hydraulic conditions may stem from the initial design of the bridge crossing, any restoration structure should be designed according to the current site hydraulics. In addition to providing insight into the design and construction of stream restoration structures, the results have implications for the design and management of bridge crossings. Copyright (c) 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Newlin, Jessica and Schultz, B. P. “Hydraulic Interaction between Rock Cross Vane Stream Restoration Structures and a Bridge Crossing.” River Research and Applications 31, no. 9 (2015) : 1183-1194.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Michael A. Malusis – Malusis, Michael A.; Kang, Jong Beom; and Shackelford, Charles D. “Restricted Salt Diffusion in a Geosynthetic Clay Liner.” Environmental Geotechnics 2, no. 2 (2015) : 68-77.

Michael A. Malusis, Associate Professor of Civil & Environmental Engineering

Malusis, Michael A.; Kang, Jong Beom; and Shackelford, Charles D. “Restricted Salt Diffusion in a Geosynthetic Clay Liner.” Environmental Geotechnics 2, no. 2 (2015) : 68-77.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Matthew Higgins – Aichinger, Peter; Wadhawan, Tanush; Kuprian, Martin; Higgins, Matthew; Ebner, Christian; Fimml, Christian; Murthy, Sudhir; and Wett, Bernhard. “Synergistic Co-Digestion of Solid-Organic-Waste and Municipal-Sewage-Sludge: 1 plus 1 Equals More than 2 in Terms of Biogas Production and Solids Reduction.” Water Research 87, (2015) : 416-423.

Matthew Higgins, Professor of Civil Engineering

Making good use of existing water infrastructure by adding organic wastes to anaerobic digesters improves the energy balance of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) substantially. This paper explores co-digestion load limits targeting a good trade-off for boosting methane production, and limiting process-drawbacks on nitrogen-return loads, cake-production, solids-viscosity and polymer demand. Bio-methane potential tests using whey as a model co-substrate showed diversification and intensification of the anaerobic digestion process resulting in a synergistical enhancement in sewage sludge methanization. Full-scale case-studies demonstrate organic co-substrate addition of up to 94% of the organic sludge load resulted in tripling of the biogas production. At organic co-substrate addition of up to 25% no significant increase in cake production and only a minor increase in ammonia release of ca. 20% have been observed. Similar impacts were measured at a high-solids digester pilot with up-stream thermal hydrolyses where the organic loading rate was increased by 25% using co-substrate. Dynamic simulations were used to validate the synergistic impact of co-substrate addition on sludge methanization, and an increase in hydrolysis rate from 1.5 d(-1) to 2.5 d(-1) was identified for simulating measured gas production rate. This study demonstrates co-digestion for maximizing synergy as a step towards energy efficiency and ultimately towards carbon neutrality. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Aichinger, Peter; Wadhawan, Tanush; Kuprian, Martin; Higgins, Matthew; Ebner, Christian; Fimml, Christian; Murthy, Sudhir; and Wett, Bernhard. “Synergistic Co-Digestion of Solid-Organic-Waste and Municipal-Sewage-Sludge: 1 plus 1 Equals More than 2 in Terms of Biogas Production and Solids Reduction.” Water Research 87, (2015) : 416-423.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Doug Gabauer – Gabauer, Doug and Li, Xiaolong. “Influence of Horizontally Curved Roadway Section Characteristics on Motorcycle-to-Barrier Crash Frequency.” Accident Analysis and Prevention77, (2015) : 105-112.

Doug Gabauer, Associate Professor of Civil & Environmental Engineering

The purpose of this study was to investigate motorcycle-to-barrier crash frequency on horizontally curved roadway sections in Washington State using police-reported crash data linked with roadway data and augmented with barrier presence information. Data included 4915 horizontal curved roadway sections with 252 of these sections experiencing 329 motorcycle-to-barrier crashes between 2002 and 2011. Negative binomial regression was used to predict motorcycle-to-barrier crash frequency using horizontal curvature and other roadway characteristics. Based on the model results, the strongest predictor of crash frequency was found to be curve radius. This supports a motorcycle-to-barrier crash countermeasure placement criterion based, at the very least, on horizontal curve radius. With respect to the existing horizontal curve criterion of 820 feet or less, curves meeting this criterion were found to increase motorcycle-to-barrier crash frequency rate by a factor of 10 compared to curves not meeting this criterion. Other statistically significant predictors were curve length, traffic volume and the location of adjacent curves. Assuming curves of identical radius, the model results suggest that longer curves, those with higher traffic volume, and those that have no adjacent curved sections within 300 feet of either curve end would likely be better candidates for a motorcycle-to-barrier crash countermeasure.

Copyright 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Gabauer, Doug and Li, Xiaolong. “Influence of Horizontally Curved Roadway Section Characteristics on Motorcycle-to-Barrier Crash Frequency.” Accident Analysis and Prevention77, (2015) : 105-112.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Jeffrey C. Evans – Beiler, Michelle and Evans, Jeffrey C. “Teaching Sustainability Topics to Attract and Inspire the Next Generation of Civil Engineers.” Journal of Professional Issues in Engineering Education and Practice 141, no. 2 (2015) : 14001-14001.

Jeffrey C. Evans, Professor of Civil & Environmental Engineering

Recent natural events such as earthquakes in Japan and storm surge effects in New York have led to the growing interest in sustainable civil engineering. While sustainability topics, such as soil liquefaction and green building design, are typically included within civil engineering programs at the baccalaureate or graduate levels, topics in sustainability can be adapted for secondary school students as well. In addition, efforts to attract quality and diverse students into civil engineering have given rise to engineering camps aimed at secondary school students. This research focuses on the exploration of civil engineering sustainable module topics for secondary school students through the development of content as well as implementation of two case studies. Sustainability module topics are identified and instructional content (lesson objectives, key concepts, activities, experiments, and other pedagogical techniques) are proposed. Two modules are applied at the Bucknell Engineering Summer Camp program, targeting secondary school students. The module topics developed, as well as the case study results, can provide examples for how engineering educators throughout the country can introduce sustainable civil engineering as a way to encourage future civil engineering students. (C) 2014 American Society of Civil Engineers.

Beiler, Michelle and Evans, Jeffrey C. “Teaching Sustainability Topics to Attract and Inspire the Next Generation of Civil Engineers.” Journal of Professional Issues in Engineering Education and Practice 141, no. 2 (2015) : 14001-14001.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Stephen Buonopane – Buonopane, Stephen; Bian, G.; Tun, T. H.; and Schafer, B. W. “Computationally Efficient Fastener-Based Models of Cold-Formed Steel Shear Walls with Wood Sheathing.” Journal of Constructional Steel Research 110, (2015) : 137-148.

Stephen Buonopane, Associate Professor of Civil & Environmental Engineering

The lateral behavior of sheathed, cold-formed steel (CFS) framed shear walls depends considerably on the complex behavior that occurs at each fastener location. Screw fasteners attach the sheathing material to the CFS framing, but relative motion of these components creates local damage, resulting in non-linearity at the scale of the entire shear wall. A computational model of a CFS shear wall is developed in which each fastener is represented by a non-linear, radially-symmetric spring element. The material parameters of the fastener element are determined from physical tests of sheathing-to-stud connections with small numbers of fasteners. The fastener material model includes a softening backbone curve, pinching, and loading and unloading parameters. The remainder of the model employs rigid sheathing panels, beam-column elements for framing, semi-rigid rotational springs for stud-to-track connections, and springs for hold-downs. The models are subjected to lateral cyclic displacement histories using the OpenSees structural analysis software. Thirteen full-scale shear wall tests of two different widths are modeled with various construction details related to the ledger track, gypsum board, vertical and horizontal seams, and number and thickness of field studs. The computational analyses are compared to the full-scale physical tests based on load-displacement behavior, lateral strength, drift at failure, initial stiffness, and energy dissipation, and are compared to specification-based strengths and displacements. The computational models provide detailed information on forces in the framing members and interaction forces at individual fasteners. This fastener-based computational approach is able to efficiently reproduce key aspects of the lateral behavior of CFS shear walls. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Buonopane, Stephen; Bian, G.; Tun, T. H.; and Schafer, B. W. “Computationally Efficient Fastener-Based Models of Cold-Formed Steel Shear Walls with Wood Sheathing.” Journal of Constructional Steel Research 110, (2015) : 137-148.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Michelle Beiler – Beiler, Michelle and Evans, Jeffrey C. “Teaching Sustainability Topics to Attract and Inspire the Next Generation of Civil Engineers.” Journal of Professional Issues in Engineering Education and Practice 141, no. 2 (2015) : 14001-14001.

Michelle Beiler, Assistant Professor of Civil & Environmental Engineering

Recent natural events such as earthquakes in Japan and storm surge effects in New York have led to the growing interest in sustainable civil engineering. While sustainability topics, such as soil liquefaction and green building design, are typically included within civil engineering programs at the baccalaureate or graduate levels, topics in sustainability can be adapted for secondary school students as well. In addition, efforts to attract quality and diverse students into civil engineering have given rise to engineering camps aimed at secondary school students. This research focuses on the exploration of civil engineering sustainable module topics for secondary school students through the development of content as well as implementation of two case studies. Sustainability module topics are identified and instructional content (lesson objectives, key concepts, activities, experiments, and other pedagogical techniques) are proposed. Two modules are applied at the Bucknell Engineering Summer Camp program, targeting secondary school students. The module topics developed, as well as the case study results, can provide examples for how engineering educators throughout the country can introduce sustainable civil engineering as a way to encourage future civil engineering students. (C) 2014 American Society of Civil Engineers.

Beiler, Michelle and Evans, Jeffrey C. “Teaching Sustainability Topics to Attract and Inspire the Next Generation of Civil Engineers.” Journal of Professional Issues in Engineering Education and Practice 141, no. 2 (2015) : 14001-14001.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Michelle Beiler – Beiler, Michelle Oswald and Waksmunski, Emily. “Measuring the Sustainability of Shared-Use Paths: Development of the GreenPaths Rating System.” Journal of Transportation Engineering141, no. 11 (2015) : 15026-15026.

Michelle Beiler, Assistant Professor of Civil & Environmental Engineering

The application of sustainable performance measures continues to increase with the development of sustainable rating systems such as leadership in energy and environmental design (LEED), as well as transportation-focused programs, such as Greenroads. Established transportation rating systems focus primarily on the design and construction of motorized facilities such as local roadways and highways. As a result, there is the opportunity to develop a rating system focused on shared-use paths that are for nonmotorized (pedestrian and cycling) mobility. The primary objective of this research is to develop a sustainable rating system for the design and construction of shared-use paths, called GreenPaths, in order to promote environmental, social, and economic benefits through the development process. Sustainable indicators (credits) for shared-use paths are developed and then weighted using the analytic hierarchy process. GreenPaths is then applied to a real-world shared-use path facility, the Buffalo Valley Rail Trail in Union County, Pennsylvania. The case study results indicate the applicability, relevance, and significance of the rating system toward measuring sustainable design and construction practices for shared-use facilities. (C) 2015 American Society of Civil Engineers.

Beiler, Michelle Oswald and Waksmunski, Emily. “Measuring the Sustainability of Shared-Use Paths: Development of the GreenPaths Rating System.” Journal of Transportation Engineering141, no. 11 (2015) : 15026-15026.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Deborah Sills – Huntley, Mark E.; Johnson, Zackary I.; Brown, Susan L.; Sills, Deborah; Gerber, Leda; Archibald, Ian; Machesky, Stephan C.; Granados, Joe; Beal, Colin; and Greene, Charles H. “Demonstrated Large-Scale Production of Marine Microalgae for Fuels and Feed.” Algal Research 10, (2015) : 249-265.

Deborah Sills, Assistant Professor of Civil & Environmental Engineering

We present the results from sustained tonne-quantity production of two novel strains of marine microalgae, the diatom Staurosira and the chlorophyte Desmodesmus, cultivated in a hybrid system of 25-m(3) photobioreactors and 400-m(2) open ponds at a large-scale demonstration facility, and then apply those results to evaluate the performance of a 100-ha Base Case commercial facility assuming it were built today. Nitrogen fertilization of 2-d batch cultures in open ponds led to the greatest yields – from both species – of similar to 75 MT ha(-1) yr(-1) biomass, and similar to 30 MT ha(-1) yr(-1) lipid, which are unprecedented in large scale open pond systems. The process described here uses only seawater, discharges no nitrogen or phosphorus in any form, and consumes CO2 at 78% efficiency. We estimate the capital cost of a 111-ha Base Case facility at $67 million in Hawaii, where actual production was performed, and $59 million on the Gulf Coast of Texas. We find that large-diameter, large-volume PBRs are an economical means to maintain a continuous supply of consistent inoculum for very short-period batch cultures in open ponds, and thus avoid biological system crashes that otherwise arise in longer-term pond cultures. We recommend certain improvements in cultivation methods that could realistically lead to yields of 100 MT ha(-1) yr(-1) biomass and >50,000 L ha(-1) yr(-1) algal oil. Comprehensive techno-economics and life cycle assessment of 20 end-to-end production lineups, based on the cultivation results in this paper, are presented in a companion paper by Beal et al. [1]. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Huntley, Mark E.; Johnson, Zackary I.; Brown, Susan L.; Sills, Deborah; Gerber, Leda; Archibald, Ian; Machesky, Stephan C.; Granados, Joe; Beal, Colin; and Greene, Charles H. “Demonstrated Large-Scale Production of Marine Microalgae for Fuels and Feed.” Algal Research 10, (2015) : 249-265.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Michelle Beiler – Beiler, Michelle R. “Integrating Innovation and Entrepreneurship Principles into the Civil Engineering Curriculum.” Journal of Professional Issues in Engineering Education and Practice 141, no. 3 (2015) : 04014014.

Michelle Beiler, Assistant Professor of Civil & Environmental Engineering

As the field of civil engineering evolves to address twenty-first century challenges, the demand for creative and innovative thinking rises. Engineering institutions around the nation have begun to integrate sustainability into the curriculum. Topics such as innovation and entrepreneurship are highly correlated with sustainability goals; however, many times they are viewed as market or management-driven principles. The Kern Entrepreneurship Education Network (KEEN) Program was established to transform the U.S. workforce through equipping graduate engineers with an entrepreneurial mindset. This program is based on KEEN student outcomes (KSOs), which can be incorporated into department level, as well as course level, curricula. This paper focuses on the integration of KSOs into a senior civil engineering capstone course through two course activities over two years. KEEN rubrics are used to assess student achievement of the KSOs focused on innovative thinking and productive collaboration. The assessment results indicate that there are existing strengths as well as future opportunities to enhance student performance of innovative thinking and open-ended problem solving-skills that are essential to promoting sustainable design and development. (C) 2014 American Society of Civil Engineers.

Beiler, Michelle R. “Integrating Innovation and Entrepreneurship Principles into the Civil Engineering Curriculum.” Journal of Professional Issues in Engineering Education and Practice 141, no. 3 (2015) : 04014014.

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