Monday, February 29th, 2016

Chris Boyatzis – Cook, Kaye V.; Kimball, Cynthia N.; Leonard, Kathleen C.; and Boyatzis, Chris. “The Complexity of Quest in Emerging Adults’ Religiosity, Well-Being, and Identity.” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 53, no. 1 (2014) : 73-89.

Chris Boyatzis, Professor of Psychology A growing body of literature indicates a modestly positive association between religiosity and spirituality as predictors of psychological health (anxiety and depression), suggesting they serve as personal resiliency factors. The purpose of this study was to expand our understanding of the relationships among these constructs. Using Lazarus’s Transactional Model of Stress as a theoretical framework, we examined: (a) the extent to which spirituality and religiosity mediated and/or moderated the association between perceived stress and psychological health and (b) whether there was a moderated (religiosity) mediation (spirituality) between stress and health. The Perceived Stress Scale, Daily […]

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

T. Joel Wade – Wade, T. Joel and Slemp, Jennifer. “How to Flirt Best: the Perceived Effectiveness of Flirtation Techniques.” Interpersona 9, no. 1 (2015) : 32-43.

T. Joel Wade, Professor of Psychology

Four studies were implemented in order to ascertain how men and women flirt with potential partners and which flirtatious actions are considered most effective. Study 1 (n = 40) and Study 2 (n = 60) sought to discover the actions that men and women, respectively, engage in to indicate romantic interest to a partner. Study 3 (n = 110) sought to determine which flirtatious acts from women are perceived as most effective by men. Women’s flirtations that suggest sexual access were expected to be rated as most effective. Study 4 (n = 222) sought to determine which flirtatious acts from men are perceived as most effective by women. Men’s flirtations that suggest emotional commitment and exclusivity were expected to be rated as most effective by women. The results were consistent with the hypotheses and are discussed in terms of prior research.

Wade, T. Joel and Slemp, Jennifer. “How to Flirt Best: the Perceived Effectiveness of Flirtation Techniques.” Interpersona 9, no. 1 (2015) : 32-43.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Peter G. Judge – Pearson, Brandon L.; Reeder, DeeAnn; and Judge, Peter G. “Crowding Increases Salivary Cortisol But Not Self-Directed Behavior in Captive Baboons.” International Journal of Primatology (2015).

Peter G. Judge, Professor of Psychology & Animal Behavior

Reduced space can lead to crowding in social animals. Crowding increases the risk of agonistic interactions that, in turn, may require additional physiological defensive coping mechanisms affecting health. To determine the stress induced from increased social density in a group of nineteen baboons living in an indoor/outdoor enclosure, saliva cortisol levels and rates of anxiety-related behavior were analyzed across two unique crowding episodes. Initially, mean salivary cortisol levels when animals were restricted to their indoor quarters were compared to those when they also had access to their larger outdoor enclosure. Then, mean cortisol levels were compared before, during, and after two distinct crowding periods of long and short duration. Crowding resulted in significantly elevated cortisol during crowding periods compared to non-crowded periods. Cortisol levels returned to baseline following two crowding episodes contrasting in their length and ambient climate conditions. These cortisol elevations indicate greater metabolic costs of maintaining homeostasis under social stress resulting from reduced space. Self-directed behavior, conversely, was not reliably elevated during crowding. Results suggest that the potential for negative social interactions, and/or the uncertainty associated with social threat can cause physiological stress responses detected by salivary cortisol. Self-directed behavioral measures of stress may constitute inadequate indicators of social stress in colony-housed monkeys or represent subjective emotional arousal unrelated to hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis activation.

Pearson, Brandon L.; Reeder, DeeAnn; and Judge, Peter G. “Crowding Increases Salivary Cortisol But Not Self-Directed Behavior in Captive Baboons.” International Journal of Primatology (2015).

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

T. Joel Wade – Gisler, Stefanie and Wade, T. Joel. “The Role of Intelligence in Mating: an Investigation of How Mating Intelligence Relates to Mate Selection and Mating-Relevant Constructs.” Human Ethology Bulletin 30, no. 4 (2015) : 8-22.

T. Joel Wade, Professor of Psychology

Mating intelligence is a fairly new construct with only limited empirical examination. Yet, previous research has found important implications for the construct’s role in mating behavior. The present study sought to expand the existing body of research on mating intelligence by investigating its relationship with self-esteem, self-perceived attractiveness, and mate selection. A sample of 195 participants (83 males and 112 females) completed a survey that incorporated measures of mating intelligence, self-esteem, and self-perceived attractiveness. Additionally, participants were asked to choose between an attractive and unattractive mate to take out on a date. Significant positive relationships between mating intelligence, self-esteem, and self-perceived attractiveness were found for both sexes. For males, mating intelligence predicted self-esteem over and above selfperceived attractiveness. Both males and females with higher mating intelligence were more likely to select the attractive mate to date. Self-perceived attractiveness predicted self-esteem for both sexes, but the relationship was stronger for males.

Gisler, Stefanie and Wade, T. Joel. “The Role of Intelligence in Mating: an Investigation of How Mating Intelligence Relates to Mate Selection and Mating-Relevant Constructs.” Human Ethology Bulletin 30, no. 4 (2015) : 8-22.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Jean Lamont – Lamont, Jean. “Trait Body Shame Predicts Health Outcomes in College Women: A Longitudinal Investigation.” Journal of Behavioral Medicine 38, no. 6 (2015) : 998-1008.

Jean Lamont, Visiting Assistant Professor of Psychology

Trait body shame impacts psychological health, but its influence on physical health heretofore has not been examined. While body shame may be expected to impact physical health through many mechanisms, this investigation tested whether trait body shame predicts physical health outcomes by promoting negative attitudes toward bodily processes, thereby diminishing health evaluation and ultimately impacting physical health. Correlational (Study 1, N=177) and longitudinal (Study 2, N=141) studies tested hypotheses that trait body shame would predict infections, self-rated health, and symptoms, and that body responsiveness and health evaluation would mediate these relationships. In Study 1, trait body shame predicted all three poor health outcomes, and body responsiveness and health evaluation mediated these relationships. Study 2 partially replicated these results while controlling for depression, smoking, and BMI, and longitudinal analyses supported the temporal precedence of trait body shame in the proposed model. Limitations and alternative pathways are discussed.

Lamont, Jean. “Trait Body Shame Predicts Health Outcomes in College Women: A Longitudinal Investigation.” Journal of Behavioral Medicine 38, no. 6 (2015) : 998-1008.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

T. Joel Wade – Wade, T. Joel; Weinstein, Erin; Dalal, Nina; and Salerno, Kelsey J. “I Can Dance: Further Investigations of the Effect of Dancing Ability on Mate Value.” Human Ethology Bulletin 30, no. 2 (2015) : 10-20.

T. Joel Wade, Professor of Psychology

The present research examined how being described as a dancer affects Black and White men and women’s assessed mate value in two studies. Study 1 examined evaluations of men by women and study 2 examined evaluations of women by men. Based on prior research examining how dancers are perceived and how body movements affect social perceiver’s evaluations of others, men and women described as dancers were expected to receive better ratings. Additionally, race of the individual being assessed was not expected to have any impact on mate value ratings. The results were consistent with the hypotheses. Men and women described as dancers received higher ratings than men and women described as non-dancers. Static manipulations of dancing ability also lead to evolutionary theory based evaluations of men and women.

Wade, T. Joel; Weinstein, Erin; Dalal, Nina; and Salerno, Kelsey J. “I Can Dance: Further Investigations of the Effect of Dancing Ability on Mate Value.” Human Ethology Bulletin 30, no. 2 (2015) : 10-20.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Aaron D. Mitchel – Lusk, Laina G. and Mitchel, Aaron D. “Differential Gaze Patterns on Eyes and Mouth During Audiovisual Speech Segmentation.” Frontiers in Psychology 7, (2016) : 52-52.

Aaron D. Mitchel, Assistant Professor of Psychology

Speech is inextricably multisensory: both auditory and visual components provide critical information for all aspects of speech processing, including speech segmentation, the visual components of which have been the target of a growing number of studies. In particular, a recent study (Mitchel and Weiss, 2014) established that adults can utilize facial cues (i.e., visual prosody) to identify word boundaries in fluent speech. The current study expanded upon these results, using an eye tracker to identify highly attended facial features of the audiovisual display used in Mitchel and Weiss (2014). Subjects spent the most time watching the eyes and mouth. A significant trend in gaze durations was found with the longest gaze duration on the mouth, followed by the eyes and then the nose. In addition, eye gaze patterns changed across familiarization as subjects learned the word boundaries, showing decreased attention to the mouth in later blocks while attention on other facial features remained consistent. These findings highlight the importance of the visual component of speech processing and suggest that the mouth may play a critical role in visual speech segmentation.

Lusk, Laina G. and Mitchel, Aaron D. “Differential Gaze Patterns on Eyes and Mouth During Audiovisual Speech Segmentation.” Frontiers in Psychology 7, (2016) : 52-52.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Aaron D. Mitchel – Evans, David W.; Lazar, Steven M.; Boomer, K B.; Mitchel, Aaron; Michael, Andrew M.; and Moore, Gregory J. “Social Cognition and Brain Morphology: Implications for Developmental Brain Dysfunction.” Brain Imaging and Behavior 9, no. 2 (2015) : 264-274.

Aaron D. Mitchel, Assistant Professor of Psychology

The social-cognitive deficits associated with several neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders have been linked to structural and functional brain anomalies. Given the recent appreciation for quantitative approaches to behavior, in this study we examined the brain-behavior links in social cognition in healthy young adults from a quantitative approach. Twenty-two participants were administered quantitative measures of social cognition, including the social responsiveness scale (SRS), the empathizing questionnaire (EQ) and the systemizing questionnaire (SQ). Participants underwent a structural, 3-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) procedure that yielded both volumetric (voxel count) and asymmetry indices. Model fitting with backward elimination revealed that a combination of cortical, limbic and striatal regions accounted for significant variance in social behavior and cognitive styles that are typically associated with neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. Specifically, as caudate and amygdala volumes deviate from the typical R > L asymmetry, and cortical gray matter becomes more R > L asymmetrical, overall SRS and Emotion Recognition scores increase. Social Avoidance was explained by a combination of cortical gray matter, pallidum (rightward asymmetry) and caudate (deviation from rightward asymmetry). Rightward asymmetry of the pallidum was the sole predictor of Interpersonal Relationships and Repetitive Mannerisms. Increased D-scores on the EQ-SQ, an indication of greater systemizing relative to empathizing, was also explained by deviation from the typical R > L asymmetry of the caudate.

Evans, David W.; Lazar, Steven M.; Boomer, K B.; Mitchel, Aaron; Michael, Andrew M.; and Moore, Gregory J. “Social Cognition and Brain Morphology: Implications for Developmental Brain Dysfunction.” Brain Imaging and Behavior 9, no. 2 (2015) : 264-274.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Kevin P. Myers – Wald, Hallie S. and Myers, Kevin P. “Enhanced Flavor-Nutrient Conditioning in Obese Rats on a High-Fat, High-Carbohydrate Choice Diet.” Physiology & Behavior 151, (2015) : 102-110.

Kevin P. Myers, Associate Professor of Psychology

Through flavor-nutrient conditioning rats learn to prefer and increase their intake of flavors paired with rewarding, postingestive nutritional consequences. Since obesity is linked to altered experience of food reward and to perturbations of nutrient sensing, we investigated flavor-nutrient learning in rats made obese using a high fat/high carbohydrate (HFHC) choice model of diet-induced obesity (ad libitum lard and maltodextrin solution plus standard rodent chow). Forty rats were maintained on HFHC to induce substantial weight gain, and 20 were maintained on chow only (CON). Among HFHC rats, individual differences in propensity to weight gain were studied by comparing those with the highest proportional weight gain (obesity prone, OP) to those with the lowest (obesity resistant, OR). Sensitivity to postingestive food reward was tested in a flavor-nutrient conditioning protocol. To measure initial, within-meal stimulation of flavor acceptance by post-oral nutrient sensing, first, in sessions 1-3, baseline licking was measured while rats consumed grape- or cherry-flavored saccharin accompanied by intragastric (IG) water infusion. Then, in the next three test sessions they received the opposite flavor paired with 5ml of IG 12% glucose. Finally, after additional sessions alternating between the two flavor-infusion contingencies, preference was measured in a two-bottle choice between the flavors without IG infusions. HFHC-OP rats showed stronger initial enhancement of intake in the first glucose infusion sessions than CON or HFHC-OR rats. OP rats also most strongly preferred the glucose-paired flavor in the two-bottle choice. These differences between OP versus OR and CON rats suggest that obesity is linked to responsiveness to postoral nutrient reward, consistent with the view that flavor-nutrient learning perpetuates overeating in obesity.Copyright 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Wald, Hallie S. and Myers, Kevin P. “Enhanced Flavor-Nutrient Conditioning in Obese Rats on a High-Fat, High-Carbohydrate Choice Diet.” Physiology & Behavior 151, (2015) : 102-110.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Kevin P. Myers – Brunstrom, Jeffrey M.; Rogers, Peter J.; Myers, Kevin P.; and Holtzman, Jon D. “In Search of Flavour-Nutrient Learning: A Study of the Samburu Pastoralists of North-Central Kenya.” Appetite 91, (2015) : 415-425.

Kevin P. Myers, Associate Professor of Psychology

Much of our dietary behaviour is learned. In particular, one suggestion is that ‘flavour-nutrient learning’ (F-NL) influences both choice and intake of food. F-NL occurs when an association forms between the orosensory properties of a food and its postingestive effects. Unfortunately, this process has been difficult to evaluate because F-NL is rarely observed in controlled studies of adult humans. One possibility is that we are disposed to F-NL. However, learning is compromised by exposure to a complex Western diet that includes a wide range of energy-dense foods. To test this idea we explored evidence for F-NL in a sample of semi-nomadic pastoralists who eat a very limited diet, and who are lean and food stressed. Our Samburu participants (N = 68) consumed a sensory-matched portion (400 g) of either a novel low (0.72 kcal/g) or higher (1.57 kcal/g) energy-dense semi-solid food on two training days, and an intermediate version on day 3. Before and after each meal we measured appetite and assessed expected satiation and liking for the test food. We found no evidence of F-NL. Nevertheless, self-reported measures were very consistent and, as anticipated, expected satiation increased as the test food became familiar (expectedsatiation drift). Surprisingly,we observed insensitivity to the effects of test-meal energy density on measures of post-meal appetite. To explore this further we repeated a single training day using participants (N = 52) from the UK. Unlike in the Samburu, the higher energy-dense meal caused greater suppression of appetite. These observations expose interesting cross-cultural differences in sensitivity to the energy content of food. More generally, our work illustrates how measures can be translated to assess different populations, highlighting the potential for further comparisons of this kind.

Brunstrom, Jeffrey M.; Rogers, Peter J.; Myers, Kevin P.; and Holtzman, Jon D. “In Search of Flavour-Nutrient Learning: A Study of the Samburu Pastoralists of North-Central Kenya.” Appetite 91, (2015) : 415-425.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Jennie Stevenson – Stevenson, Jennie; Francomacaro, Lisa; Bohidar, Amelia; Young, K. A.; Pesarchick, B. F.; Buirkle, J. M.; McMahon, Elyse; and O’Bryan, C. M. “Ghrelin Receptor (GHS-R1A) Antagonism Alters Preference for Ethanol and Sucrose in a Concentration-Dependent Manner in Prairie Voles.” Physiology & Behavior 155, (2016) : 231-236.

Jennie Stevenson, Assistant Professor of Psychology

Ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1A) activity has been implicated in reward for preferred foods and drugs; however, a recent study in our laboratory indicated that GHS-R1A antagonism reduces early (after only four exposures) preference for 20% ethanol, but not 10% sucrose in prairie voles, a genetically diverse high alcohol-consuming species. The purpose of the present study was to determine if these effects of GHS-R1A antagonism depend on the concentration of the rewarding solution being consumed. We first characterized preference for varying concentrations of ethanol and sucrose. Two bottle tests of each ethanol concentration versus water indicated that 10% and 20% ethanol are less preferred than 3% ethanol, and a follow-up direct comparison of 10% vs. 20% showed that 10% was preferred over 20%. Direct two-bottle comparisons of 2% vs. 5%, 2% vs. 10%, and 5% vs. 10% sucrose showed that 10% sucrose was most preferred, and 2% sucrose was least preferred. The effects of JMV 2959, a GHS-R1A antagonist, on preference for each concentration of ethanol and sucrose were then tested. In a between groups design prairie voles were given four two-hour drinking sessions in which animals had access to ethanol (3, 10, or 20%) versus water, or sucrose (2, 5, or 10%) versus water every other day. Saline habituation injections were given 30min before the third drinking session. JMV 2959 (i.p.; 9mg/kg), a GHS-R1A antagonist, or saline was administered 30min before the fourth drinking session. JMV 2959 reduced preference for 20% ethanol and 2% sucrose, but had no significant effect on preference for the other ethanol and sucrose concentrations. These data identify constraints on the role of GHS-R1A in early preference for ethanol and sucrose, and the concentration-dependent effects suggest strong preference for a reward may limit the importance of GHS-R1A activity.Copyright 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Stevenson, Jennie; Francomacaro, Lisa; Bohidar, Amelia; Young, K. A.; Pesarchick, B. F.; Buirkle, J. M.; McMahon, Elyse; and O’Bryan, C. M. “Ghrelin Receptor (GHS-R1A) Antagonism Alters Preference for Ethanol and Sucrose in a Concentration-Dependent Manner in Prairie Voles.” Physiology & Behavior 155, (2016) : 231-236.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Andrea Halpern – Jakubowski, Kelly; Halpern, Andrea; Grierson, Mick; and Stewart, Lauren. “The Effect of Exercise-Induced Arousal on Chosen Tempi for Familiar Melodies.” Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 22, no. 2 (2015) : 559-565.

Andrea Halpern, Professor of Psychology

Many previous studies have shown that arousal affects time perception, suggesting a direct influence of arousal on the speed of the pacemaker of the internal clock. However, it is unknown whether arousal influences the mental representation of tempo (speed) for highly familiar and complex stimuli, such as well-known melodies, that have long-term representations in memory. Previous research suggests that mental representations of the tempo of familiar melodies are stable over time; the aim of the present study was to investigate whether these representations can be systematically altered via an increase in physiological arousal. Participants adjusted the tempo of 14 familiar melodies in real time until they found a tempo that matched their internal representation of the appropriate tempo for that piece. The task was carried out before and after a physiologically arousing (exercise) or nonarousing (anagrams) manipulation. Participants completed this task both while hearing the melodies aloud and while imagining them. Chosen tempi increased significantly following exercise-induced arousal, regardless of whether a melody was heard aloud or imagined. These findings suggest that a change in internal clock speed affects temporal judgments even for highly familiar and complex stimuli such as music.

Jakubowski, Kelly; Halpern, Andrea; Grierson, Mick; and Stewart, Lauren. “The Effect of Exercise-Induced Arousal on Chosen Tempi for Familiar Melodies.” Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 22, no. 2 (2015) : 559-565.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Jennie Stevenson – Stevenson, Jennie; Buirkle, J M.; Buckley, L E.; Young, Katelyn; Albertini, K M.; and Bohidar, Amelia. “GHS-R1A Antagonism Reduces Alcohol but Not Sucrose Preference in Prairie Voles.” Physiology & Behavior 147, (2015) : 23-29.

Jennie Stevenson, Assistant Professor of Psychology

Rationale: Ghrelin has been shown to mediate food and drug reward in rats and mice, and the rewarding properties of sweet foods and alcohol are known to contribute to overconsumption of these substances. Objective: To investigate the effects of GHS-R1A antagonism in a novel animal model of high alcohol consumption, the prairie vole, and to characterize the role of ghrelin in limited access consumption of a drug (alcohol) and non-drug (sucrose) reward. Methods: Female prairie voles were given four 2-h two-bottle drinking sessions, occurring every other day. During drinking sessions, animals had access to 20% ethanol vs water or 10% sucrose vs water. Pre-treatment with the GHS-R1A antagonist JMV 2959 (i.p.; 0.0, 9.0 mg/kg Experiments 1 and 2;0.0, 9.0, 12.0 mg/kg Experiments 3 and 4.) occurred 30-min before the fourth session. To determine if the amount of exposure to sucrose sessions affected the efficacy of JMV 2959, in Experiment 5 animals were given 16 daily 2-hr drinking sessions with 10% sucrose vs water. JMV 2959 treatment (0.0 or 9.0 mg/kg) occurred 30-min prior to the 16th session. Results: JMV 2959 reduced alcohol but not sucrose preference. Even after extended experience with sucrose sessions, JMV 2959 had no effect on sucrose preference or consumption. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate that GHS-R1A antagonism reduces alcohol preference, but suggest limitations on the role of ghrelin in the preference for and consumption of naturally rewarding substances. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Stevenson, Jennie; Buirkle, J M.; Buckley, L E.; Young, Katelyn; Albertini, K M.; and Bohidar, Amelia. “GHS-R1A Antagonism Reduces Alcohol but Not Sucrose Preference in Prairie Voles.” Physiology & Behavior 147, (2015) : 23-29.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Andrea Halpern – Jakubowski, Kelly; Farrugia, Nicolas; Halpern, Andrea; Sankarpandi, Sathish K.; and Stewart, Lauren. “The Speed of Our Mental Soundtracks: Tracking the Tempo of Involuntary Musical Imagery in Everyday Life.” Memory & Cognition 43, no. 8 (2015) : 1229-1242.

Andrea Halpern, Professor of Psychology

The study of spontaneous and everyday cognitions is an area of rapidly growing interest. One of the most ubiquitous forms of spontaneous cognition is involuntary musical imagery (INMI), the involuntarily retrieved and repetitive mental replay of music. The present study introduced a novel method for capturing temporal features of INMI within a naturalistic setting. This method allowed for the investigation of two questions of interest to INMI researchers in a more objective way than previously possible, concerning (1) the precision of memory representations within INMI and (2) the interactions between INMI and concurrent affective state. Over the course of 4 days, INMI tempo was measured by asking participants to tap to the beat of their INMI with a wrist-worn accelerometer. Participants documented additional details regarding their INMI in a diary. Overall, the tempo of music within INMI was recalled from long-term memory in a highly veridical form, although with a regression to the mean for recalled tempo that parallels previous findings on voluntary musical imagery. A significant positive relationship was found between INMI tempo and subjective arousal, suggesting that INMI interacts with concurrent mood in a similar manner to perceived music. The results suggest several parallels between INMI and voluntary imagery, music perceptual processes, and other types of involuntary memories.

Jakubowski, Kelly; Farrugia, Nicolas; Halpern, Andrea; Sankarpandi, Sathish K.; and Stewart, Lauren. “The Speed of Our Mental Soundtracks: Tracking the Tempo of Involuntary Musical Imagery in Everyday Life.” Memory & Cognition 43, no. 8 (2015) : 1229-1242.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Jennie Stevenson – Fletcher, Kelsey L.; Whitley, Brittany N.; Treidel, Lisa A.; Thompson, David; Williams, Annie; Noguera, Jose C.; Stevenson, Jennie; and Haussmann, Mark F. “Voluntary Locomotor Activity Mitigates Oxidative Damage Associated with Isolation Stress in the Prairie Vole (Microtus ochrogaster).” Biology Letters 11, no. 7 (2015 ).

Jennie Stevenson, Assistant Professor of Psychology

Organismal performance directly depends on an individual’s ability to cope with a wide array of physiological challenges. For social animals, social isolation is a stressor that has been shown to increase oxidative stress. Another physiological challenge, routine locomotor activity, has been found to decrease oxidative stress levels. Because we currently do not have a good understanding of how diverse physiological systems like stress and locomotion interact to affect oxidative balance, we studied this interaction in the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). Voles were either pair housed or isolated and within the isolation group, voles either had access to a moving wheel or a stationary wheel. We found that chronic periodic isolation caused increased levels of oxidative stress. However, within the vole group that was able to run voluntarily, longer durations of locomotor activity were associated with less oxidative stress. Our work suggests that individuals who demonstrate increased locomotor activity may be better able to cope with the social stressor of isolation.

2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

Fletcher, Kelsey L.; Whitley, Brittany N.; Treidel, Lisa A.; Thompson, David; Williams, Annie; Noguera, Jose C.; Stevenson, Jennie; and Haussmann, Mark F. “Voluntary Locomotor Activity Mitigates Oxidative Damage Associated with Isolation Stress in the Prairie Vole (Microtus ochrogaster).” Biology Letters 11, no. 7 (2015 ).

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Peter G. Judge – Marsh, Heidi L.; Vining, Alexander Q.; Levendoski, Emma K.; and Judge, Peter G. “Inference by Exclusion in Lion-Tailed Macaques (Macaca silenus), a Hamadryas Baboon (Papio hamadryas), Capuchins (Sapajus apella), and Squirrel Monkeys (Saimiri sciureus).” Journal of Comparative Psychology 129, no. 3 (2015) : 256-267.

Peter G. Judge, Professor of Psychology & Animal Behavior

Previous research has suggested that several primate species may be capable of reasoning by exclusion based on the finding that they can locate a hidden object when given information about where the object is not. The present research replicated and extended the literature by testing 2 Old World monkey species, lion-tailed macaques (Macaca silenus) and a hamadryas baboon (Papio hamadryas), and 2 New World species, capuchin monkeys (Sapajus apella) and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus). The New World monkeys were tested on the traditional 2-way object choice task, and all 4 species were also tested on a more complex 3-way object choice task. In addition, the squirrel monkeys were tested on a 2-way object choice task with auditory information. The results showed that, whereas the Old World species were able to infer by exclusion on the 3-object task, some of the capuchin monkeys had difficulty on each of the 2- and 3-cup tasks. All but 1 of the squirrel monkeys failed to infer successfully, and their strategies appeared to differ between the visual and auditory versions of the task. Taken together, this research suggests that the ability to succeed on this inference task may be present throughout Old World monkey species, but is fragile in the New World species tested thus far.

Marsh, Heidi L.; Vining, Alexander Q.; Levendoski, Emma K.; and Judge, Peter G. “Inference by Exclusion in Lion-Tailed Macaques (Macaca silenus), a Hamadryas Baboon (Papio hamadryas), Capuchins (Sapajus apella), and Squirrel Monkeys (Saimiri sciureus).” Journal of Comparative Psychology 129, no. 3 (2015) : 256-267.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Ruth Tincoff – Seidl, Amanda; Tincoff, Ruth; Baker, Christopher; and Cristia, Alejandrina. “Why the Body Comes First: Effects of Experimenter Touch on Infants’ Word Finding.” Developmental Science 18, no. 1 (2015) : 155-164.

Ruth Tincoff, Assistant Professor of Psychology

The lexicon of 6-month-olds is comprised of names and body part words. Unlike names, body part words do not often occur in isolation in the input. This presents a puzzle: How have infants been able to pull out these words from the continuous stream of speech at such a young age? We hypothesize that caregivers’ interactions directed at and on the infant’s body may be at the root of their early acquisition of body part words. An artificial language segmentation study shows that experimenter-provided synchronous tactile cues help 4-month-olds to find words in continuous speech. A follow-up study suggests that this facilitation cannot be reduced to the highly social situation in which the directed interaction occurs. Taken together, these studies suggest that direct caregiver-infant interaction, exemplified in this study by touch cues, may play a key role in infants’ ability to find word boundaries, and suggests that early vocabulary items may consist of words often linked with caregiver touches. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at http://youtu.be/NfCj5ipatyE

Seidl, Amanda; Tincoff, Ruth; Baker, Christopher; and Cristia, Alejandrina. “Why the Body Comes First: Effects of Experimenter Touch on Infants’ Word Finding.” Developmental Science 18, no. 1 (2015) : 155-164.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

Peter G. Judge – Zander, Stacey L. and Judge, Peter G. “Brown Capuchin Monkeys (Sapajus apella) Plan Their Movements on a Grasping Task.” Journal of Comparative Psychology 129, no. 2 (2015) : 181-188.

Peter G. Judge, Professor of Psychology & Animal Behavior

Motor planning is a relatively complex cognitive skill in which an actor modifies a behavior to anticipate the future consequences of the action. Studying motor planning in nonhuman primates may provide a better understanding of the roots of human planning abilities. In this study we presented capuchin monkeys (Sapajus apella) with a horizontal dowel baited on either the left or right end. A radial grasp on the dowel with the thumb facing toward the baited end would be the most efficient grip selection when bringing the dowel to one’s mouth and indicate motor planning. Ten of the 12 monkeys tested spontaneously used a radial grasp significantly more often than expected by chance. Results demonstrate a more ubiquitous expression of motor planning abilities than previously seen in capuchin monkeys. Adaptation of this method of testing may be useful in evaluating motor planning capacity in other primates.

Zander, Stacey L. and Judge, Peter G. “Brown Capuchin Monkeys (Sapajus apella) Plan Their Movements on a Grasping Task.” Journal of Comparative Psychology 129, no. 2 (2015) : 181-188.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

David Evans – Evans, David W.; Lazar, Steven M.; Boomer, K B.; Mitchel, Aaron; Michael, Andrew M.; and Moore, Gregory J. “Social Cognition and Brain Morphology: Implications for Developmental Brain Dysfunction.” Brain Imaging and Behavior 9, no. 2 (2015) : 264-274.

Chris Boyatzis, Professor of Psychology

The social-cognitive deficits associated with several neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders have been linked to structural and functional brain anomalies. Given the recent appreciation for quantitative approaches to behavior, in this study we examined the brain-behavior links in social cognition in healthy young adults from a quantitative approach. Twenty-two participants were administered quantitative measures of social cognition, including the social responsiveness scale (SRS), the empathizing questionnaire (EQ) and the systemizing questionnaire (SQ). Participants underwent a structural, 3-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) procedure that yielded both volumetric (voxel count) and asymmetry indices. Model fitting with backward elimination revealed that a combination of cortical, limbic and striatal regions accounted for significant variance in social behavior and cognitive styles that are typically associated with neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. Specifically, as caudate and amygdala volumes deviate from the typical R > L asymmetry, and cortical gray matter becomes more R > L asymmetrical, overall SRS and Emotion Recognition scores increase. Social Avoidance was explained by a combination of cortical gray matter, pallidum (rightward asymmetry) and caudate (deviation from rightward asymmetry). Rightward asymmetry of the pallidum was the sole predictor of Interpersonal Relationships and Repetitive Mannerisms. Increased D-scores on the EQ-SQ, an indication of greater systemizing relative to empathizing, was also explained by deviation from the typical R > L asymmetry of the caudate.

Evans, David W.; Lazar, Steven M.; Boomer, K B.; Mitchel, Aaron; Michael, Andrew M.; and Moore, Gregory J. “Social Cognition and Brain Morphology: Implications for Developmental Brain Dysfunction.” Brain Imaging and Behavior 9, no. 2 (2015) : 264-274.

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Friday, February 26th, 2016

William F. Flack, Jr. – Flack, William F. Jr.; Kimble, Matthew O.; Campbell, Brooke E.; Hopper, Allyson B.; Peterca, Oana; and Heller, Emily J. “Sexual Assault Victimization Among Female Undergraduates During Study Abroad: A Single Campus Survey Study.” Journal of Interpersonal Violence 30, no. 20 (2015) : 3453-3466.

William F. Flack, Jr., Associate Professor of Psychology

Almost all research on sexual assault victimization among undergraduate university students pertains to incidents that occur on domestic college and university campuses. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of sexual assault victimization and related factors among undergraduates in the context of study-abroad programs. Two hundred eight female students (52% response rate) from a small university in the northeastern United States who had recently studied abroad responded to an online survey containing measures of sexual assault, posttraumatic stress responses (PSR), and alcohol consumption. Almost 19% of the respondents indicated one or more types of sexual assault victimization. Approximately 17% reported non-consensual sexual touching, 7% attempted rape, 4% rape, with 9% reporting attempted rape or rape. As in domestic studies, victimization in this sample was related positively to alcohol consumption and PSR. Use of force was the most frequently reported perpetrator tactic. In sum, the high rates of sexual assault victimization reported by this sample during study abroad replicate previous findings. This context requires further attention from sexual assault researchers, especially given the increasing numbers of university students engaging in study abroad, and from campus support personnel who may be unaware of the likelihood of assault in this context.

The Author(s) 2014.

Flack, William F. Jr.; Kimble, Matthew O.; Campbell, Brooke E.; Hopper, Allyson B.; Peterca, Oana; and Heller, Emily J. “Sexual Assault Victimization Among Female Undergraduates During Study Abroad: A Single Campus Survey Study.” Journal of Interpersonal Violence 30, no. 20 (2015) : 3453-3466.

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